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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Performance and Emission Investigations of Jatropha and Karanja Biodiesels in a Single-Cylinder Compression-Ignition Engine Using Endoscopic Imaging

[+] Author and Article Information
Gayatri K. Mistri

Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago, IL 60607

Suresh K. Aggarwal

Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
Chicago, IL 60607
e-mail: ska@uic.edu

Douglas Longman

Engine Combustion Research,
Argonne National Laboratory,
Lemont, IL 60439

Avinash K. Agarwal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 26, 2015; final manuscript received July 30, 2015; published online September 7, 2015. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(1), 011202 (Sep 07, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1166; doi: 10.1115/1.4031317 History: Received April 26, 2015; Revised July 30, 2015

Biofuels produced from nonedible sources that are cultivated on marginal lands represent a viable source of renewable and carbon-neutral energy. In this context, biodiesel obtained from Jatropha and Karanja oil seeds have received significant interest, especially in South Asian subcontinent. Both of these fuels are produced from nonedible plant seeds with high oil content, which can be grown on marginal lands. In this research, we have investigated the performance and emission characteristics of Jatropha and Karanja methyl esters (biodiesel) and their blends with diesel. Another objective is to examine the effect of long-term storage on biodiesel's oxidative stability. The biodiesels were produced at Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, (IIT Kanpur), India, and the engine experiments were performed in a single cylinder, four-stroke, compression ignition engine at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Chicago. An endoscope was used to visualize in-cylinder combustion events and examine the soot distribution. The effects of fuel and start of injection (SOI) on engine performance and emissions were investigated. Results indicated that ignition delay was shorter with biodiesel. Consequently, the cylinder pressure and premixed heat release were higher for diesel compared to biodiesel. Engine performance data for biodiesel (J100, K100) and biodiesel blends (J30, K30) showed an increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) (10.9%, 7.6% for biodiesel and blend, respectively), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (13.1% and 5.6%), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission (9.8% and 12.9%), and a reduction in brake specific hydrocarbon emission (BSHC) (8.64% and 12.9%), and brake specific CO emission (BSCO) (15.56% and 4.0%). The soot analysis from optical images qualitatively showed that biodiesel and blends produced less soot compared to diesel. The temperature profiles obtained from optical imaging further supported higher NOx in biodiesels and their blends compared to diesel. Additionally, the data indicated that retarding the injection timing leads to higher BSFC, but lower flame temperatures and NOx levels along with higher soot formation for all test fuels. The physicochemical properties such as fatty acid profile, cetane number, and oxygen content in biodiesels support the observed combustion and emission characteristics of the fuels tested in this study. Finally, the effect of long-term storage is found to increase the glycerol content, acid value, and cetane number of the two biodiesels, indicating some oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the fuels.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cylinder head modification

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Fig. 2

Endoscope experimental setup on engine (a) endoscope and (b) mounted assembly on engine head

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Fig. 3

Cylinder pressure and HRR for diesel: J100 and K100 at three different SOIs. Vertical line indicates the SOI value.

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Fig. 4

Cylinder pressure and HRR for diesel: J30 and K30 at three different SOIs. Vertical line indicates the SOI value.

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Fig. 5

IMEP plotted versus SOIs and diesel: J30, K30, J100, and K100

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Fig. 6

BTE versus SOIs for diesel: J1000 and K100 (a) and J30 and K30 (b)

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Fig. 7

BSFC versus SOIs for diesel: J100 and K100 (a) and J30 and K30 (b)

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Fig. 8

BSCO versus SOI for diesel: J100 and K100 (a) and J30 and K30 (b)

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Fig. 9

BSHC versus SOI for diesel: J100 and K100 (a) and J30 and K30 (b)

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Fig.10

BSNOx versus SOI for diesel: J100 and K100 (a) and J30 and K30 (b)

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Fig. 11

Two-dimensional images at different CAs for diesel, J30 and J100, depicting the combustion process (a), soot radiation temperature (b), and SVF distribution, (c) SOI = −5 deg ATDC

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Fig. 12

Integrated SVF versus CA for diesel: J30 and K30 (a)–(c) and J100 and K100 (d)–(f) for the three SOIs

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Fig. 13

Soot radiation temperature versus CA for diesel: J30 and K30 (a)–(c) and J100 and K100 (d)–(f)

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