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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Long-Term Effects of CO2 Sequestration on Rock Mechanical Properties

[+] Author and Article Information
Wahbi Abdulqader AL-Ameri

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of
Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
King Abdul-Aziz Center for Science and
Technology-Technology Innovation Center on
Carbon Capture and Sequestration,
Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: wahbi737@gmail.com

Abdulazeez Abdulraheem

Associate Professor
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of
Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
King Abdul-Aziz Center for Science and
Technology-Technology Innovation Center on
Carbon Capture and Sequestration,
Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: toazeez@gmail.com

Mohamed Mahmoud

Assistant Professor
Department of Petroleum Engineering,
King Fahd University of
Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
King Abdul-Aziz Center for Science and
Technology-Technology Innovation Center on
Carbon Capture and Sequestration,
Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
e-mails: mmahmoud@kfupm.edu.sa;
mohnasreldin80@gmail.com

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 15, 2015; final manuscript received November 2, 2015; published online December 1, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Esmail M. A. Mokheimer.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(1), 012201 (Dec 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1186; doi: 10.1115/1.4032011 History: Received May 15, 2015; Revised November 02, 2015

The long-term geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in underground formations (deep saline aquifers) is the most economically viable option to decrease the emissions of this greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The injection of CO2 in carbonate aquifers dissolves some of the calcite rock due to the formation of carbonic acid as a result of the interaction between CO2 and brine. This rock dissolution may affect the rock integrity and in turn will affect the rock mechanical properties. The effect of CO2 on the rock mechanical properties is a key parameter to be studied to assess the aquifer performance in the process of geological sequestration and to get a safe and effective long-term storage. The main objective of this study is to address the impact of geological sequestration of CO2 on the mechanical properties of carbonate aquifer and caprocks. In addition, the effect of the storage time on these properties is investigated. In this study, CO2 was injected into the brine-soaked core samples under simulated downhole conditions of high pressure and high temperature (2000 psi and 100 °C). The mechanical properties of these core samples were analyzed using indirect tensile strength (ITS), unconfined compression, and acoustics testing machines. The effect of CO2 sequestration on the engineering operations such as well instability and aquifer compaction will be investigated based on the experimental results. Results showed that CO2 sequestration affected the mechanical properties of the carbonate rocks as well as the caprocks. Long time soaking of CO2 in brine allowed for the formation of enough carbonic acid to react with the cores and this greatly impacted the rock mechanical and acoustic properties. The significant impact of CO2 storage was noted on Khuff limestone (KL), and the good candidate among the carbonate rocks studied here for geological sequestration of CO2 is found to be Indiana limestone (IL). The stress calculations based on the experimental results showed that CO2 may affect the wellbore stability and care should be taken during drilling new wells in the sequestration area. Aquifer compaction based on KL measurements showed that the aquifer will compact 1.25 ft for a 500 ft thick carbonate formation due the CO2 sequestration for 90 days.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic diagram of core sequestration setup

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Fig. 2

Comparison of compressional wave velocity, shear wave velocity, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio of IL sample (IL-10-2) before and after CO2 sequestration for 90 days

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Fig. 3

Comparison of compressional wave velocity, shear wave velocity, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio of PL sample (PL-S-1-A) before and after CO2 sequestration for 14 days

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Fig. 4

Comparison of compressional wave velocity, shear wave velocity, and Young's modulus of KL sample (KL-S-1-A) before and after CO2 sequestration for 90 days

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Fig. 5

Specimens before and after CO2 sequestration and the presence of calcite minerals in brine samples

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Fig. 6

Effect of sequestration time on Young's modulus at 15 MPa for PL

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Fig. 7

Reduction percentage in Young's modulus for different rock types subjected to CO2 sequestration for 90 days at 15 MPa

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Fig. 8

Comparison of Young's modulus of two caprock SH samples (SH-4-95 and SH-4-81) before and after CO2 sequestration for 30 days

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Fig. 9

Effect of sequestration time periods on Young's modulus of PL samples (PL-U-2, PL-U-1-A, PL-U-2-A, and PL-U-3-B)

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Fig. 10

Effect of sequestration time periods on Poison's ratio of PL samples (PL-U-2, PL-U-1-A, PL-U-2-A, and PL-U-3-B)

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Fig. 11

Effect of sequestration time periods on UCS of PL samples (PL-U-2, PL-U-1-A, PL-U-2-A, and PL-U-3-B)

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Fig. 12

Reduction percentage in UCS for different rock types subjected to CO2 exposure for 90 days

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Fig. 13

ITS at different periods

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Fig. 14

Reduction percentage in ITS for different rock types subjected to CO2 exposure for 90 days

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Fig. 15

Mohr circles and failure envelopes for KL samples before after CO2 exposure

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Fig. 16

Stresses around a vertical borehole

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Fig. 17

Mohr circles for stresses around the wellbore wall and failure envelopes for KL samples before and after CO2 exposure

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Fig. 18

Circumferential stress distribution around the wellbore wall

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Fig. 19

Stress–strain curve for PL sample before and after CO2 exposure

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