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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

# Combustion Characteristics of Partially Premixed Prevaporized Palm Methyl Ester and Jet A Fuel Blends

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Balakrishnan

School of Aerospace and
Mechanical Engineering,
University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019
e-mail: arun.bala@ou.edu

R. N. Parthasarathy

Mem. ASME
School of Aerospace and
Mechanical Engineering,
University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019
e-mail: rparthasarathy@ou.edu

S. R. Gollahalli

Fellow ASME
School of Aerospace and
Mechanical Engineering,
University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73019
e-mail: gollahal@ou.edu

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 18, 2015; final manuscript received October 28, 2015; published online December 1, 2015. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(1), 012202 (Dec 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1221; doi: 10.1115/1.4031966 History: Received June 18, 2015; Revised October 28, 2015

## Abstract

Palm methyl ester (PME) is an attractive alternate biofuel produced by the transesterification of palm oil with methanol. This paper is a sequel to our earlier papers on the comparison of the flame structure and emission characteristics of neat PME with those of petroleum-derived fuels (No. 2 diesel and neat Jet A). Blends of prevaporized Jet A fuel and PME (25%, 50%, and 75% by volume) were studied in a laminar flame environment at burner-exit equivalence ratios of 2, 3, and 7. The global combustion characteristics including flame length, CO and NO emission indices, radiative heat fraction, and in-flame profiles of species concentration (CO, CO2, NO, and O2), temperature, and soot volume concentration were measured. The global CO emission index decreased significantly with the PME content in the blend at an equivalence ratio of 7; a 30% reduction was observed with the addition of 25% PME by volume, and a further reduction of 25% was observed with the addition of another 25% PME. The global NO emission index of the neat PME flame was 35% lower than that of the Jet A flame at an equivalence ratio of 2. The near-burner homogeneous gas-phase reaction zone increased in length with the addition of PME at all equivalence ratios. The concentration measurements highlighted the nonmonotonic variation of properties with the volume concentration of PME in the fuel blend. The fuel-bound oxygen and hydrogen of PME affected the combustion properties significantly.

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## Figures

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of fuel/air injection system

Fig. 2

(a) Flame images at equivalence ratio of 2 (exposure time of 1/25 s); color photographs are presented in Ref. [16]. (b) Flame images at equivalence ratio of 3 (exposure time of 1/25 s); color photographs are presented in Ref. [16]. (c) Flame images at equivalence ratio of 7 (exposure time of 1/25 s); color photographs are presented in Ref. [16].

Fig. 3

(a) Global CO emission index of all the flames tested and (b) global NO emission index of all the flames tested

Fig. 4

Radiative fraction of heat release for all the flames tested

Fig. 5

Radial temperature profiles of P50 flame at Ф = 2

Fig. 6

Radial O2 concentration profiles of P50 flame at Ф = 2

Fig. 7

Radial CO2 concentration profiles of P50 flame at Ф = 2

Fig. 8

Radial CO concentration profiles of P50 flame at Ф = 2

Fig. 9

Radial NO concentration profiles of P50 flame at Ф = 2

Fig. 10

Radial soot concentration profiles of P50 flame at Ф = 2

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