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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

The Challenge of Energy Storage in Europe: Focus on Power to Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Efthymia-Ioanna Koytsoumpa

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany
e-mail: e_koytsoumpa@eu.mhps.com

Christian Bergins

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany
e-mail: c_bergins@eu.mhps.com

Torsten Buddenberg

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany
e-mail: t_buddenberg@eu.mhps.com

Song Wu

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
America—Energy and Environment, Ltd.,
645 Martinsville Road,
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920
e-mail: Song.Wu@mhpowersystems.com

Ómar Sigurbjörnsson

Carbon Recycling International,
Borgartun 27,
Reykjavik 105, Iceland
e-mail: omar.sigurbjornsson@cri.is

K. C. Tran

Carbon Recycling International,
Borgartun 27,
Reykjavik 105, Iceland
e-mail: kctran@cri.is

Emmanouil Kakaras

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany;
Centre for Research and
Technology Hellas (CERTH),
6th Kilometer Charilaou-Thermis,
Thermi, Thessaloniki GR 570 01, Greece
e-mail: e_kakaras@eu.mhps.com

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 20, 2015; final manuscript received January 13, 2016; published online February 22, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ashwani K. Gupta.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(4), 042002 (Feb 22, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1263; doi: 10.1115/1.4032544 History: Received July 20, 2015; Revised January 13, 2016

The energy sector in the European market has been changing significantly over the last years. European Union (EU) energy strategy includes the EU low-carbon roadmap milestone, which indicates for 2020, a 20% reduction in carbon emissions, and a 20% EU-wide share for renewables, and by 2030 a 40% reduction in carbon emissions and 30% EU-wide share for renewables. The increased renewable energy sources (RES) penetration and their intermittent energy production have led to the emerging need for energy storage technologies. Especially in the European energy market, large-scale energy balancing with sustainable technologies with product flexibility and cost-effective operation are being investigated. The carbon capture and utilization (CCU) concept, as a means for low-carbon sustainable industries, is integrated in the energy storage technologies. The present paper addresses the integration of power to fuel concept in the energy storage sector with simultaneous emission reduction. Grid management, the scale, and the efficient operation of electrolyzers are the basis for the implementation of Power to Fuel technology. The use of surplus and/or low-cost electricity via water electrolysis to commute captured CO2 from industrial plants to versatile energy carriers such as methane and methanol is being investigated in the present paper. Shadow operation of fossil fuel power plants under minimum load conditions leads to optimized energy dispatch of the power plants and provides product flexibility in terms of electricity, grid services, and chemical production. The produced fuels can be used in highly efficient and well-established power systems and further used in the transportation sector or for covering heat demands. The energy efficiency of the different processes is presented and a comparison is made in terms of cost effective energy storage solutions via the simultaneous grid management optimization, the reduction of carbon dioxide, and the production of valuable chemicals. The cross-sectorial concept of the Power to Fuel is presented for Steel and Power industry for the case of methane and methanol production. A review of the U.S. and European markets is made for the application of Power to Fuel.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Prices of PEP, German import gas, and North-West European import coal contracts with the share of RES in the EU power generation mix [10]

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Fig. 2

Operation range of the power plant of 710 MWel and associated MWel/MWth MeOH with and without the power to methanol operation of 410 tons per day of methanol

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Fig. 3

Actual operational load of a coal power plant of 150 MWel in Germany (left) and possible increase of operational load by Power to Methanol for efficient operation (right)

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Fig. 4

Energy balance of steel-methanol plant design with post combustion capture, electrolyzer, and CO2 methanol synthesis

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Fig. 5

Profitability analysis of power to methanol and power to SNG

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Fig. 6

Profitability chart of methanol production in EUR per MW hr (methanol price versus cost of production-operational expenditure based)

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