Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

The Challenge of Energy Storage in Europe: Focus on Power to Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Efthymia-Ioanna Koytsoumpa

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany
e-mail: e_koytsoumpa@eu.mhps.com

Christian Bergins

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany
e-mail: c_bergins@eu.mhps.com

Torsten Buddenberg

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany
e-mail: t_buddenberg@eu.mhps.com

Song Wu

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
America—Energy and Environment, Ltd.,
645 Martinsville Road,
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920
e-mail: Song.Wu@mhpowersystems.com

Ómar Sigurbjörnsson

Carbon Recycling International,
Borgartun 27,
Reykjavik 105, Iceland
e-mail: omar.sigurbjornsson@cri.is

K. C. Tran

Carbon Recycling International,
Borgartun 27,
Reykjavik 105, Iceland
e-mail: kctran@cri.is

Emmanouil Kakaras

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power
Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstrasse 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany;
Centre for Research and
Technology Hellas (CERTH),
6th Kilometer Charilaou-Thermis,
Thermi, Thessaloniki GR 570 01, Greece
e-mail: e_kakaras@eu.mhps.com

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 20, 2015; final manuscript received January 13, 2016; published online February 22, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ashwani K. Gupta.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(4), 042002 (Feb 22, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1263; doi: 10.1115/1.4032544 History: Received July 20, 2015; Revised January 13, 2016

The energy sector in the European market has been changing significantly over the last years. European Union (EU) energy strategy includes the EU low-carbon roadmap milestone, which indicates for 2020, a 20% reduction in carbon emissions, and a 20% EU-wide share for renewables, and by 2030 a 40% reduction in carbon emissions and 30% EU-wide share for renewables. The increased renewable energy sources (RES) penetration and their intermittent energy production have led to the emerging need for energy storage technologies. Especially in the European energy market, large-scale energy balancing with sustainable technologies with product flexibility and cost-effective operation are being investigated. The carbon capture and utilization (CCU) concept, as a means for low-carbon sustainable industries, is integrated in the energy storage technologies. The present paper addresses the integration of power to fuel concept in the energy storage sector with simultaneous emission reduction. Grid management, the scale, and the efficient operation of electrolyzers are the basis for the implementation of Power to Fuel technology. The use of surplus and/or low-cost electricity via water electrolysis to commute captured CO2 from industrial plants to versatile energy carriers such as methane and methanol is being investigated in the present paper. Shadow operation of fossil fuel power plants under minimum load conditions leads to optimized energy dispatch of the power plants and provides product flexibility in terms of electricity, grid services, and chemical production. The produced fuels can be used in highly efficient and well-established power systems and further used in the transportation sector or for covering heat demands. The energy efficiency of the different processes is presented and a comparison is made in terms of cost effective energy storage solutions via the simultaneous grid management optimization, the reduction of carbon dioxide, and the production of valuable chemicals. The cross-sectorial concept of the Power to Fuel is presented for Steel and Power industry for the case of methane and methanol production. A review of the U.S. and European markets is made for the application of Power to Fuel.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, 2012, “The Energy Transition: Key Projects of the 18th Legislative Term,” Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, Berlin, http://www.bmwi.de/English/Redaktion/Pdf/10-punkte-energie-agenda-fortschreibung
European Union, 2015, “Eurostat: Your Key to European Statistics,” European Union, Luxembourg, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database
Burger, B. , 2014, “ Data: EEX Transparency Platform,” Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Feiberg, Germany, http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/en/downloads-englisch/pdf-files-englisch/data-nivc-/electricity-production-from-solar-and-wind-in-germany-2014.pdf
California ISO, 2014, “Advancing and Maximizing the Value of Energy Storage Technology, A California Roadmap,” California Independent System Operator, Folsom, CA.
IEA, 2014, “Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage,” International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.
ENTSOE, 2014, “10-Year Network Development Plan,” European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSOE), Brussels Belgium.
EASE, 2013, “Joint EASE/EERA Recommendations for a European Energy Storage Technology Development Roadmap Towards 2030,” European Association for Storage of Energy, Brussels, Belgium.
ADEME, 2012, “Energy Storage Systems, Strategic Roadmap,” ADEME: The French Environment and Energy Management Agency, Angers, France.
Forschungsstelle für Energiewirtschaft, 2014, “Kurzgutachten zum Kostenvergleich Stromtransport—Hybridnetz (Power-to-Gas) vs. HGÜ-Leitung,” Forschungsstelle für Energiewirtschaft e.V., Munich, Germany.
EU Market Observatory for Energy, 2013, “Quarterly Report on European Electricity Markets,” Vol. 6, European Union, Brussels, Belgium.
EPPSA, “Thermal Power in 2030—Added Value for EU Energy Policy,” European Power Plant Suppliers Association (EPPSA), Brussels, Belgium.
Smolinka, T. , Garche, J. , Hebling, C. , and Ehret, O. , 2012, “ Overview on Water Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production and Storage,” International Symposium on Water Electrolysis and Hydrogen as Part of the Future Renewable Energy System, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 10–11.
Grond, L. , Schulze, P. , and Holstein, J. , 2013, “ System Analyses Power to Gas Pathways, A Technology Review,” DNV/ECN, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Demirbas, A. , 2010, “ Hydrogen Production From Biomass Via Supercritical Water Gasification,” Energy Source, 32(14), pp. 1342–1354. [CrossRef]
de Vries, H. , Florisson, O. , and Tiekstra, G. C. , 2007, “ NATURALHY–Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst,” 2nd International Conference on Hydrogen Safety (ICHS), San Sebastian, Spain, Sept. 11–13.
Melaina, M. W. , Antonia, O. , and Penev, M. , 2013, “ Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO, No. Report. NREL/TP-5600-51995.
Power to Gas Project, “Power-to-Gas Strategy Platform,” Deutsche Energie-Agentur (dena), Berlin, http://www.powertogas.info/power-to-gas/interaktive-projektkarte/
Wu, S. , Bergins, C. , Kikkawa, H. , Kobyashi, H. , and Kawasaki, T. , 2010, “ Technology Options for Clean Coal Power Generation With CO2 Capture,” 21st World Energy Congress, Montreal, Canada, Sept. 12–16.
Kopyscinski, J. , Schildhauer, J. T. , and Biollaz, M. A. S. , 2010, “ Production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) From Coal and Dry Biomass—A Technology Review From 1950 to 2009,” Fuel, 89(8), pp. 1763–1783. [CrossRef]
Dakota Gasification Plant Company, 2016, “Great Plains Synfuels Plant,” Dakota Gasification Company, Bismarck, ND, accessed Mar. 4, 2015, www.dakotagas.com
Ahrenfeldt, J. , Jørgensen, B. , and Thomsen, T. , 2010, “Bio-SNG Potential Assessment: Denmark 2020,” Dansk Gasteknisk Center, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark, Report No. Risø R 1754.
Topsøe, H. , 2013, “Substitute Natural Gas–Reality in the Making,” 4th Annual International Coal Gasification Summit, New Delhi, India, Feb. 11–12.
RFCS, 2013, “Project CO2free-SNG2.0, Advanced Substitute Natural Gas From Coal With Internal Sequestration of CO2, 2013–2016,” Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS), European Union, Brussels, Belgium.
ECN, 2007, “Bio SNG Project,” Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten, The Netherlands, accessed Feb. 25, 2015, http://www.biosng.com/
Göteborg Energi, 2016, “Gothenburg Biomass Gasification Project, GoBiGas,” Göteborg Energi AB, Göteborg, Sweden, http://www.goteborgenergi.se/English/Projects/GoBiGas_Gothenburg_Biomass_Gasification_Project
International Energy Agency, 2016, “Task 33: Thermal Gasification of Biomass,” accessed Apr. 4, 2015, http://www.ieatask33.org/
Bacovsky, L. , Ludwiczek, N. , Ognissanto, W. , and Wörgetter, M. , 2013, “Status of Advanced Biofuels Demonstration Facilities in 2012,” IEA Bioenergy Task 39, International Energy Agency, Paris, Report No. T39-P1b.
Strauch, S. , 2014, “Green Gas Grids, Biomethane Markets and Policies,” European Workshop on Biomethane—Markets, Value Chains and Applications, Brussels, Belgium, Mar. 11.
Strauch, S. , Krassowski, J. , and Singhal, A. , 2013, “Biomethane Guide for Decision Makers—Policy Guide on Biogas Injection Into the Natural Gas Grid,” Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Oberhausen, Germany.
Gasnetzzugangsverordnung Deutschland, “Verordnung über den Zugang zu Gasversorgungsnetzen (Gasnetzzugangsverordnung–GasNZV),” http://www.biogaspartner.de/fileadmin/biogas/Downloads/Gesetze_und_Verordnungen/GasNZV_2010.pdf
Biedermann, P. , Grube, T. , and Höhlein (Hrsg.), B. , 2006, “ Methanol as an Energy Carrier, Schriften des Forschungszentrums Jülich,” Reihe Energietechnik/Energy Technology, Vol. 55, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany.
Sciazko, M. , and Chmielniak, T. , 2012, Cost Estimates of Coal Gasification for Chemicals and Motor Fuels in Gasification for Practical Applications, Y. Yun, ed., Intech, Rijeka, Croatia.
EBTP, 2014, “Methanol,” European Biofuels Technology Platform, http://www.biofuelstp.eu/methanol. html
Toyir, J. , Miloua, R. , Elkadri, N. E. , Nawdali, M. , Toufik, H. , Miloua, F. , and Saito, M. , 2009, “ Sustainable Process for the Production of Methanol From CO2 and H2 Using Cu/ZnO-Based Multicomponent Catalyst,” Phys. Proc., 2(3), pp. 1075–1079. [CrossRef]
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems, Ltd., Duisburg, Germany, http://www.eu.mhps.com/en/press-releases.html
Santos, S. , 2012, “ Assessing the Potential of Implementing CO2 Capture in an Integrated Steel Mill,” Synthesis Report, Vol. I, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEA GHG), International Energy Agency, Paris.
Sticher, W. , Götte, C. , and Knizik, E. , 2003, “ Wirkungsgradoptimiertes Industriekraftwerk mit Hochofengasfeuerung,” VGB Powertech, 83(12), pp. 68–74.
Methanex, 2013, Annual Report, Methanex Corp., Vancouver, Canada, https://www.methanex.com/
IEA-ETSAP/IRENA, 2013, “Production of Bio-Methanol, Technology Brief I08, Jan.,” International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, www.irena.org/Publications
Methanol Institute, 2013, “Milestones 2013 Methanol Industry in Focus,” Methanol Institute, Alexandria, VA, http://www.methanol.org/
Nichols, R. J. , 2003, “ The Methanol Story: A Sustainable Fuel for the Future,” J. Sci. Ind. Res., 62, pp. 97–105.
Yang, C.-J. , and Jackson, R. B. , 2012, “ China's Growing Methanol Economy and Its Implications for Energy and the Environment,” Energy Policy, 41, pp. 878–884. [CrossRef]
Bromberg, L. , and Cheng, W. K. , 2010, “ Methanol as an Alternative Transportation Fuel in the U.S.: Options for Sustainable and/or Energy-Secure Transportation,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, Subcontract No. 4000096701.
Dolan, G. , 2014, “ Barriers and Opportunities for Moving Methanol to Energy,” MMSA Methanol Technology and Policy Congress, Frankfurt, Germany.
GUTTS BV, 2014, “GEM Fuel in Europe,” GUTTS BV, Amsterdam, http://www.gemfuel.com/
Coogee Energy, 2016, “GEM Fuel in Australia,” Coogee Energy Pty Ltd., North Laverton, VIC, Australia, http://www.drivenbygem.com.au/
European Commission, 2014, EC–EU Energy in Figures, Statistical Pocketbook, European Commission, European Union, Brussels, Belgium, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/observatory/statistics/statistics_en.htm


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Prices of PEP, German import gas, and North-West European import coal contracts with the share of RES in the EU power generation mix [10]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Profitability analysis of power to methanol and power to SNG

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Energy balance of steel-methanol plant design with post combustion capture, electrolyzer, and CO2 methanol synthesis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Actual operational load of a coal power plant of 150 MWel in Germany (left) and possible increase of operational load by Power to Methanol for efficient operation (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Operation range of the power plant of 710 MWel and associated MWel/MWth MeOH with and without the power to methanol operation of 410 tons per day of methanol

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Profitability chart of methanol production in EUR per MW hr (methanol price versus cost of production-operational expenditure based)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In