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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Effect on Fracture Pressure by Adding Iron-Based and Calcium-Based Nanoparticles to a Nonaqueous Drilling Fluid for Permeable Formations

[+] Author and Article Information
Oscar Contreras

Chevron,
500, 5th Avenue South West,
Calgary, AB T2P 0L7, Canada
e-mail: ocontreras@chevron.com

Mortadha Alsaba

Mem. ASME
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
1006 Kingshighway,
Rolla, MO 65409
e-mail: mtavm5@mst.edu

Geir Hareland

Mem. ASME
Oklahoma State University,
423 Engineering North,
Stillwater, OK 74078-5021
e-mail: geir.hareland@okstate.edu

Maen Husein

University of Calgary,
2500 University Dr. NW,
Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
e-mail: mhusein@ucalgary.ca

Runar Nygaard

Mem. ASME
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
129 McNutt Hall,
1400 North Bishop Avenue,
Rolla, MO 65409
e-mail: nygaardr@mst.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 18, 2015; final manuscript received January 6, 2016; published online February 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: S. O. Bade Shrestha.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(3), 032906 (Feb 05, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1189; doi: 10.1115/1.4032542 History: Received May 18, 2015; Revised January 06, 2016

This paper presents a comprehensive experimental evaluation to investigate the effects of adding iron-based and calcium-based nanoparticles (NPs) to nonaqueous drilling fluids (NAFs) as a fluid loss additive and for wellbore strengthening applications in permeable formations. API standard high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) filter press in conjunction with ceramic disks is used to quantify fluid loss reduction. Hydraulic fracturing experiments are carried out to measure fracturing and re-opening pressures. A significant enhancement in both filtration and strengthening was achieved by means of in situ prepared NPs. Our results demonstrate that filtration reduction is essential for successful wellbore strengthening; however, excessive reduction could affect the strengthening negatively.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Mud filtration using (a) only conventional LCM and (b) NPs and conventional LCM (Contreras 2014)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the hydraulic fracturing apparatus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The effect of iron-based NPs on filtration characteristics and fracturing pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The effect of calcium-based NPs on filtration characteristics and fracturing pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Hydraulic fracturing P versus T for control sample, iron-based NPs (FeNP), and calcium-based NPs (CaNP) blends

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The effect of NPs on both the fracturing pressure and re-opening pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Core sample after hydraulic fracturing for the control sample (left), FeNP (middle), and CaNP (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Top view of the fractured core and (b) cross section of the fracture planes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Digital microscopy image of the fracture at the wellbore

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

SEM/EDX images of the CaNPs formed seal along the fracture plane cross section

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