In this paper, an inverse problem is solved for estimating parameters of a steam-driven water–lithium bromide (LiBr) vapor absorption refrigeration system (VARS) using a differential evolution (DE)-based inverse approach. Initially, a forward model simulates the steady-state performance of the VARS at various operating temperatures and evaporator cooling loads (CLs). A DE-based inverse analysis is then performed to estimate the operating parameters taking VARS coefficient of performance (COP), CL, total irreversibility, and exergy efficiency as objective functions (one objective function at a time). DE-based inverse technique estimates the parameters within a very short period of elapsed time. Over 50 and 100 numbers of generations are sufficient for retrieval of COP and exergy efficiency, respectively, while it requires 150 generations for total irreversibility and CL. The study reveals that multiple combinations of parameters within a given range satisfy a particular objective function which serves as design guidelines in selecting appropriate operating parameters.