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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

The Effects of Fuel Mixtures in Nonpremixed Combustion for a Bluff-Body Flame

[+] Author and Article Information
Lu Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: luchen90@vt.edu

Francine Battaglia

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and
State University,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: fbattaglia@vt.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 21, 2015; final manuscript received October 7, 2015; published online November 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Reza Sadr.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(2), 022204 (Nov 12, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1191; doi: 10.1115/1.4031835 History: Received May 21, 2015; Revised October 07, 2015

A numerical investigation is presented assessing the effects of hydrogen compositions and nonflammable diluent mixtures on the combustion and NO emission characteristics of syngas nonpremixed flames for a bluff-body burner. An assessment of turbulent nonpremixed modeling techniques is presented and is compared with the experiments of Correa and Gulati (1992, “Measurements and Modeling of a Bluff Body Stabilized Flame,” Combust. Flame, 89(2), pp. 195–213). The realizable k–ε and the Reynolds stress (RSM) turbulence models were found to perform the best. As a result, increased hydrogen content caused the radial velocity and strain rate to decrease, which was important for mixing whereby NO production decreased. Also, the effectiveness of nonflammable diluent mixtures of N2, CO2, and H2O was characterized in terms of the ability to reduce NO emission in syngas nonpremixed flames. Results indicated that CO2 was the most effective diluent to reduce NO emission and H2O was more effective than N2. CO2 produced low levels of OH radical, which made CO2 the most effective diluent. Although H2O increased OH radicals, it was still effective to reduce thermal NO because of its high specific heat. It will be numerically shown that hydrogen concentration in the H2/CO/N2 flame does not significantly affect temperature but dramatically decreases NO emission, which is important for industrial applications that can use hydrogen in syngas flames.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the bluff-body burner

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Fig. 2

The nonuniform rectilinear 75 (axial) × 60 (radial) mesh

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Fig. 3

Radial mixture fraction profiles at X/Dj = 10 and 20 comparing grid resolutions

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Fig. 4

Radial temperature profiles at X/Dj = 10 and 20 comparing grid resolutions

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Fig. 5

Radial temperature and mixture fraction profiles at X/Dj = 20

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Fig. 6

Radial mixture fraction profiles of CO, H2, and H2O species at X/Dj = 20

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Fig. 7

Temperature contours with streamlines

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Fig. 8

Radial profiles of mixture fraction, strain rate, and radial velocity at X/Dj = 20

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Fig. 9

Profiles of temperature and NO mass fraction versus mixture fraction at X/Dj = 20

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Fig. 10

Radial profiles of temperature and NO mass fraction at X/Dj = 20

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Fig. 11

Radial profiles of OH and CO mass fraction at X/Dj = 20

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