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Technical Brief

The Current Trends in Conventional Power Plant Technology on Two Continents From the Perspective of Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Contractor and Original Equipment Manufacturer

[+] Author and Article Information
Gosia Stein-Brzozowska

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstr. 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany
e-mail: m_stein-brzozowska@eu.mhps.com

Christian Bergins, Michalis Agraniotis, Emmanouil Kakaras

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe GmbH,
Schifferstr. 80,
Duisburg 47059, Germany

Allan Kukoski

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Americas, Inc.,
645 Martinsville Road,
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920
e-mail: Allan.Kukoski@psa.mhps.com

Song Wu

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Americas, Inc.,
645 Martinsville Road,
Basking Ridge, NJ 07920

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 22, 2015; final manuscript received January 30, 2016; published online March 9, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Terry Wall.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(4), 044501 (Mar 09, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1270; doi: 10.1115/1.4032731 History: Received July 22, 2015; Revised January 30, 2016

In terms of CO2 emissions, the year 2030 has been addressed as a very crucial deadline for both European Union (EU) and the U.S. Whereas the U.S. Clean Power Plan proposes the reduction of national CO2 emissions from the existing power stations by 30% with respect to 2005, the EU aims at cutback by 40% from their levels in 1990. Due to the restricted emission goals dictated by the European and U.S. energy policies, both energy markets witness currently drastic changes. Whereas the U.S. wants to shift away from coal, the EU shifts away from gas due to high natural gas prices in Europe while drastically increasing the feed-ins from renewable energy sources (RES). In some of the European countries constantly growing installation of renewable energy plants is superseding natural gas-fired power plants and thus causing the electrical grid stabilization to be overtaken by coal fired power stations. On the contrary, the U.S. market due to increasing extraction of shale gas and low natural gas prices puts the gas power plants in favor and poses increasing pressure on closing some coal fired plants. A solution that uses the potential of the existing site and reduces overall emissions is converting from coal into gas-fired power plants, so-called fuel switch. Whereas for the U.S. market the later solution is relevant, in the vast majority of EU Member States the focus is on increasing the flexibility of coal fired power plants. The challenges and technical solutions developed and applied according to the demands of the market in both EU and U.S. are addressed in this paper. Both currently applied technologies and technologies under development are shortly presented.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Net electricity generation in the U.S. by fuel in trillion kWh1. Source: [6] Reference case.

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Fig. 3

Gross electricity generation by fuel, GWh, EU-28, 1990–2012, by MHPSE, source: EUROSTAT [10]

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Fig. 4

Percentage division of gross electricity generation in the EU by fuel as of 1990 and 2012, (% of total, based on GWh), by MHPSE, source: EUROSTAT [10]

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Fig. 5

Gross electricity production in Germany by fuel 1990–2014, by MHPSE, source: [12,13]

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Fig. 6

Utilization ratio regarding the available capacity of power plants based on day-ahead spot price Q1-2/2013 [17]

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Fig. 7

Electricity production within week 52/2013 co-related with electricity price [18]

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Fig. 8

Load change of two German hard coal fired power plants (own data and Ref. [21])

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Fig. 9

BHK HT-SJ Burner Design for natural gas

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Fig. 10

Axial double-stage (ADS) burner adjustable for oil and gas

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Fig. 11

Nozzle of the ADS burner for gas

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Fig. 12

Multiline design versus classical layout (new build solution)

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Fig. 13

Impact of reduced wall thickness on ramping rate (retrofit or new build solution)

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Fig. 16

Electrically heated nozzle–proof of concept. Burner nozzle is heated (1:30), see slightly visible glowing of the metal surface. When the nozzle surface temperature is high enough, coal is dosed and ignition is witnessed directly at the nozzle (1:59).

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Fig. 17

70 kW plasma flame incorporated in the 30 MW DS-burner during the cold commissioning tests. Depending on the plasma and burner operation parameters, the shape of plasma flame changes significantly from round and short to longitudinal reaching up to almost 1 m in length.

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Fig. 18

Integration of additional heat storage capacity in CHP plants interconnected in district heating systems

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Fig. 19

Enlarging feed water tank capacity [23]

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Fig. 20

Improving load change behavior thorough extending “condensate stop” operation mode [23]

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