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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Determination of Flow Units in Carbonate Reservoir With Multiscale Karst Morphology

[+] Author and Article Information
Yang Yang

MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: whitesheep00@163.com

Huiqing Liu

MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: 296045536@qq.com

Jing Wang

MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: hyliuhq@163.com

Zhaoxiang Zhang

MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: 565123853@qq.com

Qingyuan Chen

PetroChina Dagang Oilfield Company,
Tianjin 300000, China
e-mail: mada724@163.com

Hong Cheng

MOE Key Laboratory of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: 1017926909@qq.com

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 26, 2016; final manuscript received February 15, 2016; published online March 17, 2016. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(3), 032908 (Mar 17, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1055; doi: 10.1115/1.4032886 History: Received January 26, 2016; Revised February 15, 2016

The Tahe reservoir, one of the largest scale carbonate reservoirs in western China, has very special cavities and fractures. The size of the cavities ranges from millimeter to meter scale, and the size of the fractures ranges from hundreds micrometers to millimeters scale. The length of some cavities can even reach kilometers. However, based on views of core testing results, there is insignificant flow in the rock matrix. This paper introduces a new and refined method to determine flow units in such Karst carbonate reservoirs. Based on fractal theory, fluid flow patterns can be divided into three types by using production data of the Tahe reservoir. Through porosity and permeability statistics of production layers on the established geological model, flow boundaries of different flow patterns were proposed. Flow units were classified in terms of the flow boundaries. As for refined flow units, subcategory flow units were determined by three graphical tools: the limit of dynamic synthesis coefficient (DSCL) method, modified flow coefficient (MS1 and MS2, which are derived by the Forchheimer equation) curve, and the stratigraphic modified Lorenz plot (SMLP). All the parameters of graphical tools help to reconcile geology to fluid flow by illustrating the important link between geology, petrophysics, and reservoir engineering. The use of this technique is illustrated with data from a specific block of the Tahe reservoir.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Flow chart of flow units determination

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Fig. 2

(a) The R(T)/S(T) and T/2 relationship contrast between before water breakthrough and after water breakthrough of large-cave flow, (b) H′(T) characteristic after water breakthrough of large-cave flow, and (c) well production characteristics of large-cave flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) The R(T)/S(T) and T/2 relationship contrast between before water breakthrough and after water breakthrough of high-speed flow, (b) H′(T) characteristic after water breakthrough of high-speed flow, and (c) well production characteristics of high-speed flow

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Fig. 4

(a) The R(T)/S(T) and T/2 relationship contrast between before water breakthrough and after water breakthrough of Darcy flow, (b) H′(T) characteristic after water breakthrough of Darcy flow, and (c) well production characteristics of Darcy flow

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Fig. 5

Porosity and permeability boundary of different flow patterns by statistics in geological model. This flow patterns are named by the karst morphology.

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Fig. 6

Oil production change characteristics of different flow patterns for various choke sizes

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Fig. 7

Three subcategory flow units were determined in category I flow unit by graphical tools of DSCL under a range of Fc and hc values

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Fig. 8

Subcategory flow units were determined in a certain category I flow unit

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Fig. 9

(a) The influence of As on well production and (b) the influence of qc on well production

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Fig. 10

Cumulative MS1 and MS2 are plotted versus cumulative storage capacity using data of a certain category II flow unit in the Tahe reservoir, which have both the same slope on curve MS1 and curve MS2, and they were determined as a same flow unit

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Fig. 11

Subcategory flow units determination in category II by SMLP

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Fig. 12

Subcategory flow unit determination in category III by SMLP

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