An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the suitability of hazelnut oil methyl ester (HOME) for engine performance and exhaust emissions responses of a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine. HOME was tested at full load with various engine speeds by changing fuel injection timing (12, 15, and 18 deg CA) in a TDI diesel engine. Response surface methodology (RSM) and least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM) were used for modeling the relations between the engine performance and exhaust emission parameters, which are the measured responses and factors such as fuel injection timing (t) and engine speed (n) parameters as the controllable input variables. For this purpose, RSM and LSSVM models from experimental results were constructed for each response, namely, brake power, brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke opacity (N), which are affected by the factors t and n. The results of RSM and LSSVM were compared with the observed experimental results. These results showed that RSM and LSSVM were effective modeling methods with high accuracy for these types of cases. Also, the prediction performance of LSSVM was slightly better than that of RSM.