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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Modeling of Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow for a Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector

[+] Author and Article Information
Kaushik Saha

Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
Lemont, IL 60439
e-mail: ksaha@anl.gov

Sibendu Som

Energy Systems Division,
Argonne National Laboratory,
Lemont, IL 60439
e-mail: ssom@anl.gov

Michele Battistoni

Department of Engineering,
University of Perugia,
Perugia 106123, Italy
e-mail: michele.battistoni@unipg.it

Yanheng Li

Convergent Science, Inc.,
Madison, WI 53719
e-mail: yanheng.li@convergecfd.com

Shaoping Quan

Convergent Science, Inc.,
Madison, WI 53719
e-mail: shaoping.quan@convergecfd.com

Peter Kelly Senecal

Convergent Science, Inc.,
Madison, WI 53719
e-mail: senecal@convergecfd.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 14, 2016; final manuscript received March 3, 2016; published online April 5, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Avinash Kumar Agarwal. The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(5), 052208 (Apr 05, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4032979 History: Received January 14, 2016; Revised March 03, 2016

A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multihole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from the engine combustion network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for a fixed needle lift. The effects of turbulence, compressibility, and noncondensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k–ε turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous relaxation model (HRM) coupled with volume of fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase-change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine nonflashing and evaporative, nonflashing and nonevaporative, and flashing conditions. Noticeable hole-to-hole variations have been observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under all the operating conditions considered in this study. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitationlike and in the near-nozzle region flash-boiling phenomena have been predicted when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Under favorable conditions, considerable flashing has been observed in the near-nozzle regions. An enormous volume is occupied by the gasoline vapor, formed by the flash boiling of superheated liquid fuel. Large outlet domain connecting the exits of the holes and the pressure outlet boundary appeared to be necessary leading to substantial computational cost. Volume-averaging instead of mass-averaging is observed to be more effective, especially for finer mesh resolutions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Layout of the eight-stepped holes of Spray G nozzle (bottom view) and the computational domain considered in this study

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Fig. 2

Vertical cut-plane showing the mesh with 140 μm as base grid size and 9 mm outlet domain

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Fig. 3

Effect of outlet domain sizes on numerical predictions, under Spray G conditions with 180 μm base grid size

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Fig. 4

Contours of Spray G—nonflashing and evaporative condition with 140 μm as base grid size and 9 mm outlet domain

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Fig. 5

Contours of Spray G and Spray GCool

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Fig. 6

Vapor mass fraction contours of Spray G2—flashing condition with 140 μm as base grid size and 9 mm outlet domain

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Fig. 7

Velocity and temperature contours of Spray G2—flashing condition with 140 μm as base grid size and 9 mm outlet domain

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Fig. 8

Hole-to-hole variations in mass flow rates for Spray G—with 140 μm as base grid size and 9 mm outlet domain

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Fig. 9

Hole-to-hole variations in mass flow rates for Spray G2—with 140 μm as base grid size and 9 mm outlet domain

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Fig. 10

Cut-planes showing mesh inside the eight different holes of Spray G injector

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