Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Technical and Economical Assessment of the Indirectly Heated Carbonate Looping Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Markus Junk

Institute for Energy Systems and Technology,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Str. 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: markus.junk@est.tu-darmstadt.de

Michael Reitz

Institute for Energy Systems and Technology,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Str. 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: michael.reitz@est.tu-darmstadt.de

Jochen Ströhle

Institute for Energy Systems and Technology,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Str. 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany,
e-mail: jochen.stroehle@est.tu-darmstadt.de

Bernd Epple

Institute for Energy Systems and Technology,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Str. 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: bernd.epple@est.tu-darmstadt.de

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 21, 2015; final manuscript received March 20, 2016; published online April 19, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ashwani K. Gupta.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 138(4), 042210 (Apr 19, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1268; doi: 10.1115/1.4033142 History: Received July 21, 2015; Revised March 20, 2016

Carbonate looping promises low energy penalties for postcombustion CO2-capture and is particularly suited for retrofitting existing power plants. To further improve the process, a new concept with an indirectly heated calciner using heat pipes was developed, offering even higher plant efficiencies and lower CO2 avoidance costs than the oxy-fired standard carbonate looping process. The concept of the indirectly heated carbonate looping (IHCL) process was tested at sufficient scale in a 300 kWth pilot plant at Technische Universität Darmstadt. The paper presents a technical overview of the process and shows first test results of the pilot plant. Furthermore, the concept is economically evaluated and compared to other carbon capture processes.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Abu Zahra, M. R. M. , Fernandez, E. S. , and Goetheer, E. L. V., 2011, “Guidelines for Process Development and Future Cost Reduction of CO2 Post-Combustion Capture,” Energy Procedia, 4, pp. 1051–1057. [CrossRef]
Panesar, R. , Lord, M. , Simpson, S. , White, V. , Gibbins, J. , and Reddy, S. , 2006, “ Coal-Fired Advanced Supercritical Boiler/Turbine Retrofit With CO2 Capture,” 8th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Trondheim, Norway, June 19–22.
Martelli, E. , Kreutz, T. , and Consonni, S. , 2009, “Comparison of Coal IGCC With and Without CO2 Capture and Storage: Shell Gasification With Standard vs. Partial Water Quench,” Energy Procedia, 1(1), pp. 607–614. [CrossRef]
Keller, D. , and Scholz, M. H. , 2010, “ Development Perspectives of Lignite-Based IGCC Plants With CCS,” VGB PowerTech, 90(4), pp. 30–34.
Epple, B. , and Ströhle, J. , 2008, “ CO2 Capture Based on Chemical and Carbonate Looping,” VGB PowerTech, 88(11), pp. 85–89.
Bailey, D. W. , and Feron, P. H. M. , 2005, “ Post-Combustion Decarbonisation Processes,” Oil Gas Sci. Technol., 60(3), pp. 461–474. [CrossRef]
Bouillon, P. A. , Hennes, S. , and Mahieux, C. , 2009, “ ECO2: Post-Combustion or Oxyfuel—A Comparison Between Coal Power Plants With Integrated CO2 Capture,” Energy Procedia, 1(1), pp. 4015–4022. [CrossRef]
Abanades, J. C. , Anthony, E. J. , Wang, J., and Oakey, J. E., 2005, “Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems Integrating CO2 Capture With CaO,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 39(8), pp. 2861–2866. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ströhle, J. , Junk, M. , Kremer, J. , Galloy, A. , and Epple, B. , 2014, “Carbonate Looping Experiments in a 1 MWth Pilot Plant and Model Validation,” Fuel, 127, pp. 13–22. [CrossRef]
Shimizu, T. , Hirama, T. , Hosoda, H., Kitano, k., Inagaki, M., and Tejima, K., 1999, “A Twin Fluid-Bed Reactor for Removal of CO2 from Combustion Processes,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 77(1), pp. 62–68. [CrossRef]
Junk, M. , Reitz, M. , Ströhle, J. , and Epple, B. , 2013, “Thermodynamic Evaluation and Cold Flow Model Testing of an Indirectly Heated Carbonate Looping Process,” Chem. Eng. Technol., 36(9), pp. 1479–1487. [CrossRef]
Höftberger, D. , and Karl, J. , 2013, “Self-Fluidization in an Indirectly Heated Calciner,” Chem. Eng. Technol., 36(9), pp. 1533–1538. [CrossRef]
Bhatia, S. K. , and Perlmutter, D. D. , 1983, “Effect of the Product Layer on the Kinetics of the CO2-Lime Reaction,” AIChE J., 29(1), pp. 79–86. [CrossRef]
Lu, D. Y. , Hughes, R. W. , and Anthony, E. J. , 2008, “Ca-Based Sorbent Looping combustion for CO2 Capture in Pilot-Scale Dual Fluidized Beds,” Fuel Process. Technol., 89(12), pp. 1386–1395. [CrossRef]
Dieter, H. , Hawthorne, C. , Bidwe, A. R. , Zieba, M. , and Scheffknecht, G. , 2012, “ The 200 kWth Dual Fluidized Bed Calcium Looping Pilot Plant for Efficient CO2 Capture: Plant Operating Experiences and Results,” 21st International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, Naples, Italy, June 3–6, pp. 397–404.
Abanades, J. C. , 2012, “ Session 3: Calcium Looping—Reactor and Process,” CaOling Workshop, Oviedo, Spain, Apr. 19.
Chang, M.-H. , Huang, C.-M. , Liu, W.-H. , Chen, W.-C. , Cheng, J.-y., Chen, W., Wen. T.-W., Ouyang, S., Shen, S.-H., Hsu, H.-W., 2013, “Design and Experimental Investigation of Calcium Looping Process for 3-kWth and 1.9-MWth Facilities,” Chem. Eng. Technol., 36(9), pp. 1525–1532. [CrossRef]
Abanades, J. C. , and Alvarez, D. , 2003, “Conversion Limits in the Reaction of CO2 with Lime,” Energy Fuels, 17(2), pp. 308–315. [CrossRef]
Grasa, G. S. , Abanades, J. C. , Alonso, M. , and González, B. , 2008, “Reactivity of Highly Cycled Particles of CaO in a Carbonation/Calcination Loop,” Chem. Eng. J., 137(3), pp. 561–567. [CrossRef]
Sun, P. , Grace, J. R. , Lim, C. J. , and Anthony, E. J. , 2007, “Removal of CO2 by Calcium-Based Sorbents in the Presence of SO2,” Energy Fuels, 21(1), pp. 163–170. [CrossRef]
Coppola, A. , Montagnaro, F. , Salatino, P. , and Scala, F. , 2013, “Influence of High-Temperature Steam on the Reactivity of CaO Sorbent for CO2 Capture,” 14th International Conference on Fluidization, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, May 26–31.
Donat, F. , Florin, N. H. , Anthony, E. J. , and Fennell, P. S. , 2012, “ Influence of High-Temperature Steam on the Reactivity of CaO Sorbent for CO2 Capture,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 46(2), pp. 1262–1269. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Junk, M. , Reitz, M. , Ströhle, J. , and Epple, B. , 2013, “ Design of a 300 kWth Indirectly Heated Carbonate Looping Test Facility,” 5th IEAGHG High Temperature Solids Looping Network, Cambridge, UK, Sept. 2–3.
Reitz, M. , Junk, M. , Ströhle, J. , and Epple, B. , 2014, “Design and Erection of a 300 kWth Indirectly Heated Carbonate Looping Test Facility,” Energy Procedia, 63, pp. 2170–2177. [CrossRef]
Rubin, E. , Booras, G. , Davison, J. , Ekstrom, C. , Matuszewski, M. , McCoy, S. , and Short, C. , 2013, “ Toward a Common Method of Cost Estimation for CO2 Capture and Storage at Fossil Fuel Power Plants,” Global CCS Institute, Docklands, Australia.
Poboß, P. , and Scheffknecht, G. , 2008, “ Machbarkeitsstudie für das Carbonate Looping Verfahren zur CO2 Abscheidung aus Kraftwerksrauchgasen,” COORETEC Machbarkeitsstudie, IVD Universität Stuttgart, BMWi Project 0327771 B, Final Report.
Finkenrath, M. , 2011, “ Cost and Performance of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Power Generation,” International Energy Agency, Paris.
Dieter, H. , Beirow, M. , Schweitzer, D. , Hawthorne, C. , and Scheffknecht, G. , 2014, “ Efficiency and Flexibility Potential of Calcium Looping CO2 Capture,” Energy Procedia, 63, pp. 2129–2137.
Hoeftberger, D. , and Karl, J. , 2012, “ Self-Fluidization in an Indirectly Heated Calciner,” 2nd International Conference on Chemical Looping, Darmstadt.
EP, 2011, “ CARINA: Capture by Means of the Indirectly Heated Carbonate Looping Process,” Technische Universität Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, EP No. 10,174,156.9.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Simplified setup of the IHCL process and (b) efficiency penalties of the standard (SCLR) and IHCL retrofit with internal solid/solid heat exchange (IHCLPHR)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the 300 kWth test facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Sectional representation (left) and picture (right) of the heat pipe heat exchanger

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Picture (left) and 3D sketch (right) of the 300 kWth pilot plant at Technische Universität Darmstadt

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Top left: CO2 capture based on the equilibrium and carbonator bed pressure and inventory; top right: CO2 capture efficiency and CO2 inlet and outlet concentration; bottom left: reactor temperatures; bottom right: thermal power of the combustor and CO2 and steam mass flow to the carbonator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Representative temperature profile of the 300 kW pilot

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Left: impact of the cost variation on the overall CO2 avoidance costs; right: equipment cost shares of the IHCL plant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

CO2 avoidance costs of different studies for various technologies (without compression)




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In