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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

An Investigation of Multi-Injection Strategies for a Dual-Fuel Pilot Diesel Ignition Engine at Low Load

[+] Author and Article Information
Amin Yousefi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada

Madjid Birouk

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Manitoba,
Winnipeg, MB R3T 5V6, Canada
e-mail: Madjid.Birouk@umanitoba.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 25, 2016; final manuscript received May 17, 2016; published online June 21, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(1), 012201 (Jun 21, 2016) (15 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1051; doi: 10.1115/1.4033707 History: Received January 25, 2016; Revised May 17, 2016

A multidimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed in order to explore the combined effect of injection timing and fuels quantity ratio of different injection strategies on the combustion performance and emissions characteristics of a dual-fuel indirect injection (IDI) engine with a pilot diesel ignition. The total mass of pilot diesel and premixed natural gas equivalence ratio were kept constant while various injection strategies (single, double, and triple) were investigated at 25% engine load and speed of 800 rpm. Results revealed that the released heat of triple injection pulse during the expansion stroke is the same or higher than that of single and double injection pulses at specified injection timings. It affects positively the engine performance. The highest indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) can be achieved using single injection pulse at all first injection timings. It is observed that double and triple injection pulses possess comparable indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) and IMEP to those of single injection at specified injection timings. The highest ITE is found 47.5% at first injection timing of −16 deg after top dead center (ATDC) for both single and double injection pulses. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) mole fraction generally increases when retarding the injection timing. By applying double and triple injection pulses, NOx emissions decrease, on average, by 9% and 14% compared to that of the single injection pulse. Using double and triple injection pulses, soot emissions increase, on average, by 10% and 32%, respectively, compared to single injection pulse. However, at specified injection timings, the effect of all injection pulses on soot emissions is negligible at relative advanced first injection timing. Carbon monoxide (CO) emissions decrease slightly for all injection strategies when the injection timing varies from −20 deg ATDC to −12 deg ATDC. In this range, dual-fuel operation with triple injection pulse produces the lowest CO emissions. By using triple injection pulse at suitable injection timings, CO emissions decrease by around 7.4% compared to single injection pulse. However, by applying double and triple injection pulses, unburned methane increases, on average, by 16% and 52%, respectively, compared with that of single injection pulse. However, at injection timings of −12 deg ATDC and −8 deg ATDC, triple and double injection pulses produce comparable level of unburned methane to that of single injection pulse.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Comparison of the in-cylinder pressure between experiments and simulation for cases 1 and 2

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Fig. 3

Comparison of emissions between experiments and simulation for case 2: (a) NOx and (b) unburned CH4 and CO

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Fig. 5

Peak in-cylinder pressure for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 4

In-cylinder pressure for different injection strategies at 25% of full engine load

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Fig. 10

NOx emissions for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 11

Distribution of (a) NO and (b) NO2 mass fraction of the different injection strategies for TDC and 20 deg ATDC

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Fig. 12

Soot emissions for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 13

Distribution of soot mass fraction of the different injection strategies for TDC and 20 deg ATDC

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup

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Fig. 6

HRR for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 7

In-cylinder mean temperature for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 8

In-cylinder maximum mean temperature for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 9

(a) IMEP and (b) ITE for different injection strategies

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Fig. 14

CO emissions for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 15

Distribution of CO mass fraction of the different injection strategies for TDC and 35 deg ATDC

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Fig. 16

Unburned CH4 emissions for different injection strategies at 25% engine load

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Fig. 17

Distribution of unburned methane of the different injection strategies for TDC and 35 deg ATDC

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