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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Increasing the Heating Value of Ethanol Using Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

[+] Author and Article Information
Neda Gilani

Fouman Faculty of Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
P.O. Box 43515-1155,
Fouman 43516-66456, Iran
e-mail: gilani@ut.ac.ir

Arash Dostani Hendijani

Fouman Faculty of Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
P.O. Box 43515-1155,
Fouman 43516-66456, Iran

Farid Seyedin

Technical Manager of Laboratories,
Sharif Energy Research Institute,
P.O. Box: 1459777611,
Tarasht, Tehran, Iran

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 30, 2015; final manuscript received May 25, 2016; published online June 27, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Mohamed A. Habib.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(1), 012001 (Jun 27, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1367; doi: 10.1115/1.4033791 History: Received September 30, 2015; Revised May 25, 2016

In this study, the applicability of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an additive to increase ethanol heating value has been examined. CNTs were grown within pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), fabricated at the voltages of 40 V and 60 V. Accordingly, CNTs with tubular and Y-branched structures were obtained. Then, CNTs were carboxylated in 10 ppm solution of ethanol and its heating value was examined. Results indicated that Y-branched CNTs only lead to 0.1% increase in ethanol heating value. Tubular CNTs with 16 nm wall thickness raised heating value up to 0.38%. Therefore, Y-branched CNTs resulted in lower increase in ethanol heating value than tubular CNTs. In order to enhance the heating value of this sample, the amine groups including butylamine, dodecylamine, and octadecylamine were used to functionalize the related CNTs. The results showed that the heating values of 10 ppm solutions of functionalized CNTs are higher than pure ethanol about 0.65–2.4%. Moreover, the highest heating value belonged to the solution containing CNTs functionalized by Octadecylamine. Various concentrations of these functionalized CNTs showed that they were stable in 80 ppm ethanol solutions and their heating value and octane number increased by 6.4% and 7.8%, respectively.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

The TEM images of grown CNTs in the AAO template fabricated at (a) 40 V and (b) 60 V

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Fig. 2

(a) AFM image of the barrier layer, (b) the distribution diagram of the barrier layer spheres size, and (c) cross section SEM of AAO channels fabricated at 40 V

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Fig. 3

(a) AFM image of the barrier layer, (b) distribution diagram of the barrier layer spheres size, and (c) cross section SEM of AAO channels fabricated at 60 V

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Fig. 4

TEM images of CNTs at growth times of (a) 12 hrs, (b) 15 hrs, and (c) 18 hrs

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Fig. 5

FTIR spectrum of (a) raw and (b) carboxylated CNTs

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Fig. 6

FTIR spectrum of CNTs functionalized by butylamine

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Fig. 7

FTIR spectrum of CNTs functionalized by dodecylamine

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Fig. 8

FTIR spectrum of CNTs functionalized by octadecylamine

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Fig. 9

Heating values for 10 ppm solutions of ethanol and branched/tubular carboxylated CNTs (with different diameters)

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Fig. 10

Heating values for 10 ppm mixture of ethanol and amido-functionalized CNTs

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Fig. 11

Amidation of carboxylated CNTs by amine functional group

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Fig. 12

The heating value percentage increase for 10 ppm ethanol solutions containing carboxylated and amido-functionalized CNTs

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Fig. 13

The heating values of ethanol/CNT/Oda solutions at various concentrations

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Fig. 14

The percentage increase for heating value of ethanol/CNT-Oda solutions at various concentrations

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Fig. 15

The values of obtained octane number for ethanol/CNT-Oda solutions at various concentrations

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Fig. 16

The percentage increase for octane number of ethanol/CNT-Oda solutions at various concentrations

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