Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Modeling Hybrid Nuclear Systems With Chilled-Water Storage

[+] Author and Article Information
Corey T. Misenheimer

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
911 Oval Drive,
Box 7910, NCSU Campus,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: ctmisenh@ncsu.edu

Stephen D. Terry

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
911 Oval Drive,
Box 7910, NCSU Campus,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: sdterry@ncsu.edu

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 13, 2015; final manuscript received June 3, 2016; published online June 27, 2016. Assoc. Editor: S. O. Bade Shrestha.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(1), 012002 (Jun 27, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1437; doi: 10.1115/1.4033858 History: Received November 13, 2015; Revised June 03, 2016

Air-conditioning loads during the warmer months of the year are large contributors to an increase in the daily peak electrical demand. Traditionally, utility companies boost output to meet daily cooling load spikes, often using expensive and polluting fossil fuel plants to match the demand. Likewise, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system components must be sized to meet these peak cooling loads. However, the use of a properly sized stratified chilled-water storage system in conjunction with conventional HVAC system components can shift daily energy peaks from cooling loads to off-peak hours. This process is examined in light of the recent development of small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs). In this study, primary components of an air-conditioning system with a stratified chilled-water storage tank were modeled in FORTRAN 95. A basic chiller operation criterion was employed. Simulation results confirmed earlier work that the air-conditioning system with thermal energy storage (TES) capabilities not only reduced daily peaks in energy demand due to facility cooling loads but also shifted the energy demand from on-peak to off-peak hours, thereby creating a more flattened total electricity demand profile. Thus, coupling chilled-water storage-supplemented HVAC systems to SMRs is appealing because of the decrease in necessary reactor power cycling, and subsequently reduced associated thermal stresses in reactor system materials, to meet daily fluctuations in cooling demand. Also, such a system can be used as a thermal sink during reactor transients or a buffer due to renewable intermittency in a nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES).

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Fig. 2

Schematic of proposed hybrid nuclear system

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Fig. 3

Electric, centrifugal chiller efficiency curves established via Carrier's hap software

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Fig. 4

Cooling tower characteristic curves of 775 nominal ton Evapco counterflow cooling tower

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Fig. 5

Stratified chilled-water storage tank when charging (left) and discharging (right)

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Fig. 6

Required electricity to meet cooling demand compared to proposed chilled-water storage system with a 6 × 106 gallon stratified chilled-water storage tank with assumed 10% CWL from 1:00 am on July 5 to 1:00 am on July 8

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Fig. 7

Normalized cold water volume in tank with variable chiller size, 6 × 106 gallon storage tank, and 10% CWL from 1:00am on July 5 to 1:00 am on July 8

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Fig. 8

Total required facility power to meet cooling loads and internal loads with no chilled-water storage versus facility with 6 × 106 gallon storage tank, constant 10% CWL, and variable chiller size from 1:00 am on July 5 to 1:00 am on July 8

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Fig. 9

Total energy consumed for the same facility with and without thermal storage capabilities and total energy shifted from on-peak to off-peak hours on a monthly basis with a 6 × 106 gallon storage tank, 2000 kW chiller, and 10% CWL

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Fig. 10

Normalized cold water volume in tank with variable CWL, 6 × 106 gallon storage tank, and a 2000 kW electric chiller from 1:00 am on July 5 to 1:00 am on July 8

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Fig. 11

Required chiller compressor input power as a function of tank size and variable CWL factor for specific chiller control criterion




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