Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Auto-Ignition Characteristics Study of Gas-to-Liquid Fuel at High Pressures and Low Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Omid Askari

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Mississippi State University,
Starkville, MS 39762

Mimmo Elia, Matthew Ferrari, Hameed Metghalchi

Mechanical and Industrial
Engineering Department,
Northeastern University,
Boston, MA 02115

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 1, 2016; final manuscript received June 14, 2016; published online July 11, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Arash Dahi Taleghani.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(1), 012204 (Jul 11, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1233; doi: 10.1115/1.4033983 History: Received June 01, 2016; Revised June 14, 2016

Onset of auto-ignition of premixed gas-to-liquid (GTL)/air mixture has been determined at high pressures and low temperatures over a wide range of equivalence ratios. The GTL fuel used in this study was provided by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), designated by Syntroleum S-8, which is derived from natural gas via the Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) process. A blend of 32% iso-octane, 25% n-decane, and 43% n-dodecane is employed as the surrogates of GTL fuel for chemical kinetics study. A spherical chamber, which can withstand high pressures up to 400 atm and can be heated up to 500 K, was used to collect pressure rise data, due to combustion, to determine the onset of auto-ignition. A gas chromatograph (GC) system working in conjunction with specialized heated lines was used to verify the filling process. A liquid supply manifold was used to allow the fuel to enter and evaporate in a temperature-controlled portion of the manifold using two cartridge heaters. An accurate high-temperature pressure transducer was used to measure the partial pressure of the vaporized fuel. Pressure rise due to combustion process was collected using a high-speed pressure sensor and was stored in a local desktop via a data acquisition system. Measurements for the onset of auto-ignition were done in the spherical chamber for different equivalence ratios of 0.8–1.2 and different initial pressures of 8.6, 10, and 12 atm at initial temperature of 450 K. Critical pressures and temperatures of GTL/air mixture at which auto-ignition takes place have been identified by detecting aggressive oscillation of pressure data during the spontaneous combustion process throughout the unburned gas mixture. To interpret the auto-ignition conditions effectively, several available chemical kinetics mechanisms were used in modeling auto-ignition of GTL/air mixtures. For low-temperature mixtures, it was shown that auto-ignition of GTL fuel is a strong function of unburned gas temperature, and propensity of auto-ignition was increased as initial temperature and pressure increased.

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Fig. 1

Overview of experimental facilities

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Fig. 2

Comparison of pressure–time traces of auto-ignition of GTL/air mixture for three different initial pressures of 8.6, 10, and 12 atm, at initial temperature of 450 K and equivalence ratio of 0.8 and normal combustion with initial pressure of 2 atm

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Fig. 3

Comparison of pressure rate–time traces of auto-ignition of GTL/air mixture for three different initial pressures of 8.6, 10, and 12 atm, at initial temperature of 450 K and equivalence ratio of 0.8

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Fig. 4

Comparison of available GTL detailed kinetics mechanisms [21,23,39,40] with the experimental data [19] at equivalence ratio of 1 and pressure of 20 atm for a wide range of temperatures

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Fig. 5

Theoretical ignition delay time for a wide range of pressures and temperatures using Ranzi et al. [39] mechanism for stoichiometric GTL/air mixture

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Fig. 6

Experimental temperatures and pressures at the onset of auto-ignition for GTL/air mixture at different equivalence ratios

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Fig. 7

Theoretical ignition delay times for GTL/air mixture at different equivalence ratios versus (a) experimental temperatures and (b) experimental pressures at the onset of auto-ignition




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