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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Experimental Study on a Novel Foaming Formula for CO2 Foam Flooding

[+] Author and Article Information
X. Xu, A. Saeedi

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
Curtin University,
Perth 6151, Australia

K. Liu

Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration
and Development,
Beijing 100083, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 22, 2015; final manuscript received June 25, 2016; published online July 25, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Daoyong (Tony) Yang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(2), 022902 (Jul 25, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1448; doi: 10.1115/1.4034069 History: Received November 22, 2015; Revised June 25, 2016

This research developed a viable and economical foaming formula (AOS/AVS/N70K-T) which is capable of creating ample and robust CO2 foams. Its foaming ability and displacement performance in a porous medium were investigated and compared with the two conventional formulations (AOS alone and AOS/HPAM). The results showed that the proposed formula could significantly improve the foam stability without greatly affecting the foaming ability, with a salinity level of 20,000 ppm and a temperature of 323 K. Furthermore, AOS/AVS/N70K-T foams exhibited thickening advantages over the other formulations, especially where the foam quality was located around the transition zone. This novel formulation also showed remarkable blocking ability in the resistance factor (RF) test, which was attributed to the pronounced synergy between AVS and N70K-T. Last but not the least, it was found that the tertiary oil recovery of the CO2 foams induced by AOS/AVS/N70K-T was 12.5% higher than that of AOS foams and 6.8% higher than that of AOS/HPAM foams at 323 K and 1500 psi, thus indicating its huge enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Through systematic research, it is felt that the novel foaming formulation might be considered as a promising and practical candidate for CO2 foam flooding in the future.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of HPAM (a) and AVS (b) molecular structure

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Fig. 2

Experimental schematic of the foam performance evaluation (apparent foam viscosity, RF and RRF, and oil displacement). (1) CO2 tank, (2) gas mass flow control system, (3) foam generator, (4) chemical solution, (5) synthetic brine, (6) injection pump, (7) pressure transducer, (8) core holder, (9) back pressure regulator, (10) graduated cylinder, (11) data acquisition system, and (12) heating system.

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Fig. 3

The schematic of the foam generator

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Fig. 4

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on Triton X-100 concentration

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Fig. 5

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on APG concentration

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Fig. 6

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on SDS concentration

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Fig. 7

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on AOS concentration

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Fig. 8

Microscopic images of AOS and SDS bulk foam (concentration 0.5 wt.%, 298 K) (scale bar = 200 μm): (a) AOS foam 0 s, (b) AOS foam 600 s, (c) SDS foam 0 s, and (d) SDS foam 600 s

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Fig. 9

AOS bulk foam size distribution (concentration 0.5 wt.%, 298 K)

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Fig. 10

SDS bulk foam size distribution (concentration 0.5 wt.%, 298 K)

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Fig. 11

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on HPAM concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.%)

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Fig. 12

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on AVS concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.%)

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Fig. 13

The effect of polymer concentration on surface tension (293 K)

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Fig. 14

The effect of polymer concentration on solution viscosity (323 K)

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Fig. 15

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on TEA concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.% and AVS 0.15 wt.%)

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Fig. 16

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on N70K-T concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.% and AVS 0.15 wt.%)

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Fig. 17

The influence of the foam quality on the foam apparent viscosity (323 K and 10.3 MPa)

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Fig. 18

The RF and RRF of the foaming formulations (323 K and 10.3 MPa)

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