Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Experimental Study on a Novel Foaming Formula for CO2 Foam Flooding

[+] Author and Article Information
X. Xu, A. Saeedi

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
Curtin University,
Perth 6151, Australia

K. Liu

Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration
and Development,
Beijing 100083, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 22, 2015; final manuscript received June 25, 2016; published online July 25, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Daoyong (Tony) Yang.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(2), 022902 (Jul 25, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1448; doi: 10.1115/1.4034069 History: Received November 22, 2015; Revised June 25, 2016

This research developed a viable and economical foaming formula (AOS/AVS/N70K-T) which is capable of creating ample and robust CO2 foams. Its foaming ability and displacement performance in a porous medium were investigated and compared with the two conventional formulations (AOS alone and AOS/HPAM). The results showed that the proposed formula could significantly improve the foam stability without greatly affecting the foaming ability, with a salinity level of 20,000 ppm and a temperature of 323 K. Furthermore, AOS/AVS/N70K-T foams exhibited thickening advantages over the other formulations, especially where the foam quality was located around the transition zone. This novel formulation also showed remarkable blocking ability in the resistance factor (RF) test, which was attributed to the pronounced synergy between AVS and N70K-T. Last but not the least, it was found that the tertiary oil recovery of the CO2 foams induced by AOS/AVS/N70K-T was 12.5% higher than that of AOS foams and 6.8% higher than that of AOS/HPAM foams at 323 K and 1500 psi, thus indicating its huge enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Through systematic research, it is felt that the novel foaming formulation might be considered as a promising and practical candidate for CO2 foam flooding in the future.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Todd Hoffman, B. , and Shoaib, S. , 2013, “ CO2 Flooding to Increase Recovery for Unconventional Liquids-Rich Reservoirs,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(2), p. 022801. [CrossRef]
Wood, D. J. , Lake, L. W. , Johns, R. T. , and Nunez, V. , 2008, “ A Screening Model for CO2 Flooding and Storage in Gulf Coast Reservoirs Based on Dimensionless Groups,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 11(3), pp. 513–520. [CrossRef]
Martin, D. F. , and Taber, J. J. , 1992, “ Carbon Dioxide Flooding,” J. Pet. Technol., 44(4), pp. 396–400. [CrossRef]
Carpenter, C. , 2014, “ Development of Small-Molecule CO2 Thickeners,” J. Pet. Technol., 66(7), pp. 145–147. [CrossRef]
Guo, X. , Du, Z. , and Sun, L. , 2006, “ Optimization of Tertiary Water-Alternate-CO2 Flood in Jilin Oil Field of China: Laboratory and Simulation Studies,” SPE Paper No. 99616-MS.
Holm, L. W. , 1982, “ CO2 Flooding: Its Time Has Come,” J. Pet. Technol., 34(12), pp. 2739–2745. [CrossRef]
Hild, G. P. , and Wackowski, R. K. , 1999, “ Reservoir Polymer Gel Treatments to Improve Miscible CO2 Flood,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 2(2), pp. 196–204. [CrossRef]
Akinnikawe, O. , Chaudhary, A. , Vasquez, O. , Enih, C. , and Ehlig-Economides, C. A. , 2013, “ Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency Through a CO2/Brine-Displacement Approach,” SPE J., 18(4), pp. 743–751. [CrossRef]
Olabode, A. , and Radonjic, M. , 2014, “ Shale Caprock/Acidic Brine Interaction in Underground CO2 Storage,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(4), p. 042901. [CrossRef]
Daneshfar, J. , Hughes, R. H. , and Civan, F. , 2009, “ Feasibility Investigation and Modeling Analysis of CO2 Sequestration in Arbuckle Formation Utilizing Salt Water Disposal Wells,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(2), p. 023301. [CrossRef]
Heller, J. P. , Dandge, D. K. , Card, R. J. , and Donaruma, L. G. , 1985, “ Direct Thickeners for Mobility Control of CO2 Floods,” Soc. Petrol. Eng. J., 25(5), pp. 679–686. [CrossRef]
Rogers, J. D. , and Grigg, R. B. , 2001, “ A Literature Analysis of the WAG Injectivity Abnormalities in the CO2 Process,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 4(5), pp. 375–386. [CrossRef]
Birarda, G. S. , Dilger, C. W. , and McIntosh, I. , 1990, “ Re-Evaluation of the Miscible WAG Flood in the Caroline Field, Alberta,” SPE Reservoir Eng., 5(4), pp. 453–458. [CrossRef]
Ren, G. , Zhang, H. , and Nguyen, Q. , 2013, “ Effect of Surfactant Partitioning on Mobility Control During Carbon-Dioxide Flooding,” SPE J., 18(4), pp. 752–765. [CrossRef]
Eastoe, J. , Paul, A. , Nave, S. , Steytler, D. C. , Robinson, B. H. , Rumsey, E. , Thorpe, M. , and Heenan, R. K. , 2001, “ Micellization of Hydrocarbon Surfactants in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123(5), pp. 988–989. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zanganeh, M. N. , 2011, “ Simulation and Optimization of Foam EOR Processes,” Ph.D. dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Delft, South Holland, The Netherlands.
Kutay, S. M. , and Schramm, L. L. , 2004, “ Structure/Performance Relationships for Surfactant and Polymer Stabilized Foams in Porous Media,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 43(2), pp. 19–28. [CrossRef]
Khatib, Z. I. , Hirasaki, G. J. , and Falls, A. H. , 1988, “ Effects of Capillary Pressure on Coalescence and Phase Mobility in Foams Flowing Through Porous Medium,” SPE Reservoir Eng., 3(03), pp. 919–926. [CrossRef]
Worthen, A. , Bryant, S. , Huh, C. , and Johnston, K. P. , 2013 “ Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Foams Stabilized With Nanoparticles and Surfactant Acting in Synergy,” AIChE J., 59(9), pp. 3490–3501. [CrossRef]
Adkins, S. S. , Gohil, D. , Dickson, J. L. , Webber, S. E. , and Johnston, K. P. , 2007, “ Water-in-Carbon Dioxide Emulsions Stabilized With Hydrophobic Silica Particles,” R. Soc. Chem., 9(48), pp. 6333–6343.
Duan, M. , Hu, X. , Ren, D. , and Guo, H. , 2004, “ Studies on Foam Stability by the Actions of Hydrophobically Modified Polyacrylamides,” Colloid Polym. Sci., 282(11), pp. 1292–1296. [CrossRef]
Monsalve, A. , and Schechter, R. S. , 1984, “ The Stability of Foams: The Stability of Foams: Dependence of Observation on the Bubble Size Distribution,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 97(2), pp. 327–335. [CrossRef]
Sett, S. , Sahu, R. P. , Pelot, D. D. , and Yarin, A. L. , 2014, “ Enhanced Foamability of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Surfactant Mixed With Superspreader Trisiloxane-(Poly) Ethoxylate,” Langmuir, 30(49), pp. 14765–14775. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ma, K. , Lopez-Salinas, J. L. , Puerto, M. C. , Miller, C. A. , Biswal, S. L. , and Hirasaki, G. J. , 2013, “ Estimation of Parameters for the Simulation of Foam Flow Through Porous Media. Part 1: The Dry-Out Effect,” Energy Fuels, 27(5), pp. 2363–2375. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of HPAM (a) and AVS (b) molecular structure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Experimental schematic of the foam performance evaluation (apparent foam viscosity, RF and RRF, and oil displacement). (1) CO2 tank, (2) gas mass flow control system, (3) foam generator, (4) chemical solution, (5) synthetic brine, (6) injection pump, (7) pressure transducer, (8) core holder, (9) back pressure regulator, (10) graduated cylinder, (11) data acquisition system, and (12) heating system.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The schematic of the foam generator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on Triton X-100 concentration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on APG concentration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on SDS concentration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on AOS concentration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Microscopic images of AOS and SDS bulk foam (concentration 0.5 wt.%, 298 K) (scale bar = 200 μm): (a) AOS foam 0 s, (b) AOS foam 600 s, (c) SDS foam 0 s, and (d) SDS foam 600 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

AOS bulk foam size distribution (concentration 0.5 wt.%, 298 K)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

SDS bulk foam size distribution (concentration 0.5 wt.%, 298 K)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on HPAM concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on AVS concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The effect of polymer concentration on surface tension (293 K)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The effect of polymer concentration on solution viscosity (323 K)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on TEA concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.% and AVS 0.15 wt.%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The dependence of foamability and foam stability on N70K-T concentration (AOS 0.5 wt.% and AVS 0.15 wt.%)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

The influence of the foam quality on the foam apparent viscosity (323 K and 10.3 MPa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

The RF and RRF of the foaming formulations (323 K and 10.3 MPa)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In