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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

A Case Study on the Influence of Selected Parameters on Microexplosion Behavior of Water in Biodiesel Emulsion Droplets

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohammed Yahaya Khan

Research Scholar
Centre for Automotive Research,
and Electric Mobility (CAREM),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,
Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak Darul
Ridzuan, Malaysia
e-mail: mohammedyahayakhan@yahoo.com

Z. A. Abdul Karim

Associate Professor
Centre for Automotive Research
and Electric Mobility (CAREM),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,
Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610,
Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
e-mail: ambri@petronas.com.my

A. Rashid A. Aziz

Professor
Centre for Automotive Research
and Electric Mobility (CAREM),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,
Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610,
Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
e-mail: rashid@petronas.com.my

Isa M. Tan

Associate Professor
Department of Fundamental and Applied Science,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS,
Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610,
Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
e-mail: isa_mtan@petronas.com.my

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 28, 2015; final manuscript received June 22, 2016; published online August 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(2), 022203 (Aug 17, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-15-1452; doi: 10.1115/1.4034230 History: Received November 28, 2015; Revised June 22, 2016

Microexplosion behavior of water in biodiesel emulsion droplets was studied by suspending a single droplet on a wire type thermocouple. Water in biodiesel emulsion droplets with 9%, 12%, 15%, and 18% water by volume was observed in the Leiden frost regime using a hot plate as the heat source maintained at two different temperatures of 400 °C and 500 °C. The evolution of microexplosion was recorded with a high-speed camera synchronized with a temperature data logger. The emulsions were prepared by an electrical stirrer fitted with customized made blades rotating at 1500 rpm for 15 min. The emulsions were stabilized with two different hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) values, which were prepared by mixing two different commercial surfactants. It is found that the microexplosion time and temperature were influenced by emulsion stability, water content, surfactant dosage, base plate temperature, and HLB value. All the unstable emulsions developed microexplosion at both plate temperatures. Emulsions stabilized with an HLB value of 6.31 and 18% water content did exhibit microexplosion at both base plate temperatures. Also, the waiting time was found to decrease with increasing surfactant concentrations for a 500 °C plate temperature compared to 400 °C.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup [6]: 1, high-speed camera; 2, thermocouple for droplet temperature; 3, hot plate; 4, thermocouple for hot plate temperature; 5, N. I. controller; 6 and 7, PC for data acquisition and image processing; and 8, light source for front light illumination.

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Fig. 2

Unstable WiDE 1–4 showing clear water layer separation

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Fig. 3

Stable WiDE 21–24

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Fig. 4

Unstable WiDE at 500× magnification: (a) WiDE-4 and (b) WiDE-13

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Fig. 5

Water particle distribution of samples WiDE-16 (a), WiDE-20 (b), and WiDE-24 (c) at 500× magnification

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Fig. 6

The size distribution of water particles of subset of WiDE samples

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Fig. 7

Sauter mean diameter of group 1 and group 2 emulsions

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Fig. 8

Microexplosion evolution of WiDE-8 with 18% water stabilized with 10% surfactant: (a) WiDE-8 at base plate temperature of 400 °C and (b) WiDE-8 at base plate temperature of 500 °C

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Fig. 9

Microexplosion evolution of WiDE-12 with 18% water stabilized with 15% surfactant: (a) WiDE-12 at base plate temperature of 400 °C and (b) WiDE-12 at base plate temperature of 500 °C

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Fig. 10

Microexplosion evolution of WiDE-23 with 15% water stabilized with 15% surfactant: (a) WiDE-23 at base plate temperature of 400 °C and (b) WiDE-23 at base plate temperature of 500 °C

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Fig. 11

Microexplosion evolution of group 2 WiDE with 18% water stabilized: (a) WiDE-16 stabilized with 5% surfactant at a base plate temperature of 400 °C, (b) WiDE-16 stabilized with 5% surfactant at a base plate temperature of 500 °C, (c) WiDE-20 stabilized with 10% surfactant at a base plate temperature of 400 °C, (d) WiDE-20 stabilized with 10% surfactant at a base plate temperature of 500 °C, (e) WiDE-24 stabilized with 15% surfactant at a base plate temperature of 400 °C, and (f) WiDE-24 stabilized with 15% surfactant at a base plate temperature of 500 °C

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