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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Emissions From a Diesel Engine Operating in a Dual-Fuel Mode Using Port-Fuel Injection of Heated Hydrous Ethanol

[+] Author and Article Information
Alex J. Nord

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street Southeast,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: nord0537@umn.edu

Jeffrey T. Hwang

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street Southeast,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: hwang183@umn.edu

William F. Northrop

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street Southeast,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: wnorthro@umn.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 25, 2016; final manuscript received July 13, 2016; published online August 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(2), 022204 (Aug 17, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1145; doi: 10.1115/1.4034288 History: Received March 25, 2016; Revised July 13, 2016

Aftermarket dual-fuel injection systems in diesel engines using hydrous ethanol as secondary fuel have been developed as a means to lower emissions from older diesel-powered equipment. However, our previous work has shown that the emissions benefits of currently available aftermarket intake fumigation injection systems can be inconsistent with manufacturer claims. Our current study evaluates a newly developed aftermarket dual-fuel system that incorporates a fuel heating system and port fuel injection (PFI). This paper describes an experimental investigation of engine-out emissions from a John Deere 4045HF475 Tier 2 engine with port injection of 180 proof (90% ethanol by volume) hydrous ethanol. The engine was retrofitted with a custom fuel heat exchanger to heat the hydrous ethanol to a range of 46–79 °C for helping to improve fuel vaporization in the intake port. PFI duration was controlled using engine speed and throttle position as inputs to achieve a desired fumigant energy fraction (FEF), defined as the amount of energy provided by the hydrous ethanol based on lower heating value (LHV) over the total fuel energy provided to the engine. Data was collected over a range of FEF with direct injected diesel for eight operating modes comparing heated versus unheated hydrous ethanol. Results of the study indicate that as FEF increases, NO emissions decrease, while NO2, CO, THC, and unburned ethanol emissions increase. In addition, it was found that preheating the ethanol using engine coolant prior to injection has little benefit on engine-out emissions. The work shows that the implemented aftermarket dual-fuel PFI system can achieve FEF rates up to 37% at low engine load while yielding modest benefits in emissions.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Isometric view of hydrous ethanol fuel injection system

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Fig. 2

Injector section view of hydrous ethanol fuel injection system

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Fig. 3

Diagram of engine test setup

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Fig. 4

Simulation and experimental ethanol temperatures in  °C as a function of ethanol fuel flow in kg/h for each test mode

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Fig. 5

Maximum FEF achieved for each test mode for heated and unheated ethanol injection

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Fig. 6

Brake-specific NO emissions as measured by FT-IR in g/kW h for each mode as a function of FEF

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Fig. 7

Brake-specific NO2 emissions as measured by FT-IR in g/kW h for each mode as a function of FEF

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Fig. 8

Brake-specific CO emissions as measured by FT-IR in g/kW h for each mode as a function of FEF

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Fig. 9

Brake-specific, nonethanol THC emissions as measured by FT-IR in g/kW h for each mode as a function of FEF

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Fig. 10

Individual light HC brake-specific emissions for unheated ethanol injection at mode 3

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Fig. 11

Brake-specific EtOH emissions as measured by FT-IR in g/kW h for each mode as a function of FEF

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Fig. 12

Soot concentration as measured by microsoot in mg/m3 for each mode as a function of FEF

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