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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Effect of Nanoparticles on the Fuel Properties and Spray Performance of Aviation Turbine Fuel

[+] Author and Article Information
Kumaran Kannaiyan

Micro Scale Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Mechanical Engineering Program,
Texas A&M University at Qatar,
PO Box 23874,
Education City, Doha, Qatar
e-mail: kumaran.kannaiyan@qatar.tamu.edu

Kanjirakat Anoop

Micro Scale Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Mechanical Engineering Program,
Texas A&M University at Qatar,
PO Box 23874,
Education City, Doha, Qatar
e-mail: anoop.baby@qatar.tamu.edu

Reza Sadr

Micro Scale Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Mechanical Engineering Program,
Texas A&M University at Qatar,
PO Box 23874,
Education City, Doha, Qatar
e-mail: reza.sadr@qatar.tamu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 12, 2016; final manuscript received September 26, 2016; published online October 13, 2016. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(3), 032201 (Oct 13, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1290; doi: 10.1115/1.4034858 History: Received July 12, 2016; Revised September 26, 2016

The influence of nanoparticles' dispersion on the physical properties of aviation fuel and its spray performance has been investigated in this work. To this end, the conventional Jet A-1 aviation fuel and its mixtures with alumina nanoparticles (nanofuel) at different weight concentrations are investigated. The key fuel physical properties such as density, viscosity, and surface tension that are of importance to the fuel atomization process are measured for the base fuel and nanofuels. The macroscopic spray features like spray cone angle and sheet breakup length are determined using the shadowgraph technique. The microscopic spray characteristics such as droplet diameter, droplet velocity, and their distributions are also measured by employing phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique. The spray performance is measured at two nozzle injection pressures of 0.3 and 0.9 MPa. The results show that with the increase in nanoparticle concentrations in the base fuel, the fuel viscosity and density increase, whereas the surface tension decreases. On the spray performance, the liquid sheet breakup length decreases with increasing nanoparticle concentrations. Furthermore, the mean droplet diameters of nanofuel are found to be lower than those of the base fuel.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Transmission electron microscopy image provided by the manufacturer (courtesy: Nanoamour, Inc., Houston, TX)

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the spray experimental setup integrated with PDA transmitter and receiver probes

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Fig. 3

(a) Viscosity variation with shear and (b) viscosity and density ratio variation of nanofuels

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Fig. 4

Surface tension and refractive index measurements of nanofuels

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Fig. 5

Variation of spray cone angle during the transient time period

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Fig. 6

Comparison of sheet breakup length between the nanofuels and the base fuel at 0.3 MPa injection pressure

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Fig. 7

Variation of liquid sheet breakup length for nanofuels and base fuel

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Fig. 8

Data rate trends at different axial locations for the base fuel at 0.3 (left) and 0.9 MPa (right) injection pressures

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Fig. 9

Mean droplet diameter variation along the radial direction at x = 25 mm for the base fuel and nanofuel (2 wt.%) at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures

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Fig. 10

Radial profiles of data rate at x = 25 mm for the base fuel and nanofuel (2 wt.%) at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures

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Fig. 11

Sauter mean diameter variation along the radial direction at x = 25 mm for the base fuel and nanofuel (2 wt.%) at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures

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Fig. 12

Mean axial droplet velocity variation along the radial direction at x = 25 mm for the base fuel and nanofuel (2 wt.%) at 0.3 and 0.9 MPa injection pressures

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