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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Modeling of Filter Cake Composition in Maximum Reservoir Contact and Extended Reach Horizontal Wells in Sandstone Reservoirs

[+] Author and Article Information
Mohamed Mahmoud

Associate Professor
Petroleum Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: mmahmoud@kfupm.edu.sa

Badr S. Bageri

Petroleum Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: bageri.b@gmail.com

Salaheldin Elkatatny

Assistant Professor
Petroleum Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Petroleum Engineering Department,
Cairo University,
Cairo 12613, Egypt
e-mail: elkatatny@kfupm.edu.sa

Saleh H. Al-Mutairi

Saudi Chevron,
Mina Al-Zour 66051, Kuwait
e-mail: saleh.alshatri@gmail.com

Manuscript received March 2, 2016; final manuscript received October 13, 2016; published online November 16, 2016. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(3), 032904 (Nov 16, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1117; doi: 10.1115/1.4035022 History: Received March 02, 2016; Revised October 13, 2016

Drilling mud should be properly designed to build an effective filter cake on the formation face during the drilling process. This filter cake should be removable to allow the oil and gas production. The need for removal increases when the liftoff pressure is high or when the formation drawdown is extremely low. An effective filter cake removal design includes the knowledge of the filter cake composition along the horizontal section. This paper, for the first time, introduces material balance model to predict the composition of the filter cake along the length of the lateral of an actual horizontal well drilled in a sandstone formation. The model is based on the material balance of two sources of solids: the first one is the drilling fluid solids and the second one is the drilled-formation solids. The mud used to drill the rock was contaminated by the drilled-formation solids. The parameters used to construct the model were composition of the mud and formation, efficiency of each separation stage, rate of penetration (ROP), and mud circulation rate. The model was validated with actual mud samples collected from different locations along the horizontal section of a sandstone formation. The model showed that the sand content in the filter cake is affected by ROP, rock composition, mud composition and volume, and efficiency of sand separation equipment. We came up with several correlations that can be used to design the drilling fluid operations in horizontal well to avoid the formation of irremovable filter cake.

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References

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Percentages of solids from the mud and from the rock along the horizontal lateral for the drilling fluid exiting the well. Solid from the rock increased along the horizontal section. Solid from the mud is calcium carbonate, and solid from the rock is quartz.

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Fig. 2

Filter cake composition in the last 30 ft of horizontal section

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Fig. 3

Relationship between mud volume and percentage of rock solids in the filter cake at the end of the horizontal lateral (L = 3000 ft)

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Fig. 4

Relationship between dimensionless mud volume (n) and percentage of rock solids in the filter cake at the end of the horizontal lateral (L = 3000 ft)

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Fig. 5

Relationship between mud volume and rock solids percentage in the filter cake for different removal efficiencies (L = 3000 ft)

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Fig. 6

Effect of removing (separation) efficiency on the rock solids percentage in the filter cake along the horizontal lateral

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Fig. 7

Relationship between removing (separation) efficiency on the rock solids percentage at different mud volumes (L = 3000 ft)

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Fig. 8

Effect of formation porosity on rock solids percentage in the filter cake along the horizontal well. Different lines for different porosity values starting from 5% for the upper curve and increase downward.

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Fig. 9

Effect of open hole diameter on rock solids percentage. The upper curve for 9 in. hole diameter and it decreases downward.

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Fig. 10

Relationship between open hole diameter and rock solids content in the filter cake in the horizontal section

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