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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Measurements of Hydrogen-Enriched Combustion of JP-8 in Open Flame

[+] Author and Article Information
Michael Seibert

Command, Power, and Integration Directorate,
U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC,
Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Aberdeen, MD 21005

Sen Nieh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The Catholic University of America,
Washington, DC 20064

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 25, 2016; final manuscript received November 4, 2016; published online December 8, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Reza Sheikhi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(1), 012205 (Dec 08, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1308; doi: 10.1115/1.4035255 History: Received July 25, 2016; Revised November 04, 2016

Hydrogen enrichment is presented as a control parameter to improve JP-8 combustion. Research in fuel reforming gives an opportunity for hydrogen production at the point of use. Hydrogen-enriched combustion of JP-8 seeks to take advantage of the energy density of JP-8 and the combustibility of hydrogen. At low power output (<2 kWe), technologies such as Stirling engines, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic generators have the potential to compete with diesel engines, but require reliable JP-8 combustion. Experiments were conducted with atomized JP-8 in a 5 kWth open flame, based on a 500 W power source. JP-8 is sprayed through an air-atomizing nozzle. Hydrogen was added to either the atomizing air or to a concentric tube supplying the main combustion air. In these experiments, hydrogen represented up to 26% of the fuel energy contribution (EC). During hydrogen enrichment, JP-8 flow rate was reduced to maintain constant fuel energy input. Temperature is measured vertically and laterally through the flame. Temperature profiles show that combustion shifts toward the nozzle as hydrogen is added. Hydrogen in the secondary air maintains diffusion flame behavior, but earlier in the flame. Hydrogen in the nozzle air creates a premixed pilot flame structure in the center of the flame. This premixed hydrogen and air flame provides initial energy to speed droplet heating and vaporization, producing higher peak temperatures than the other cases studied. Gaseous emissions are measured above the visible flame. Hydrogen enrichment by both methods reduced unburned hydrocarbon emissions by up to 70%. The advantages provided by hydrogen enrichment represent opportunities for reduced size, improved operational reliability and control, and reduced pollutant emissions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of nozzle and liquid and gas supply lines

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Fig. 2

Flame shift replacing some JP-8 with hydrogen, 26% energy contribution

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Fig. 3

Early flame temperature shift with hydrogen addition, 7%, 13%, and 26% energy contribution

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Fig. 4

Flames showing reduced standoff with hydrogen addition

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Fig. 5

T versus x profiles showing temperature at 1.5 cm (squares), 3 cm (diamonds), and 13 cm (triangles): (a) JP-8 flame and (b) hydrogen flame

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Fig. 6

A 1.5 cm temperature profile with hydrogen addition to the secondary air

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Fig. 7

A 3 cm temperature profile with hydrogen addition to the secondary air

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Fig. 8

Ignition region showing the difference between hydrogen addition to the nozzle and the secondary air

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Fig. 9

Lateral temperature profiles for flames with 13% energy contribution from hydrogen at (a) 1.5 cm and (b) 3 cm

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Fig. 10

A 1.5 cm temperature profile with hydrogen addition to the nozzle air

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Fig. 11

A 3 cm temperature profile with hydrogen addition to the nozzle air

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Fig. 12

Unburned hydrocarbon emissions with hydrogen enrichment

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Fig. 13

CO emissions with hydrogen enrichment

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