0
Research Papers: Oil/Gas Reservoirs

Gelation Performance and Feasibility Study of an Environmental Friendly Improved Inorganic Aluminum Gel for Conformance Control Under Harsh Reservoir Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Hong He

Hubei Cooperative Innovation Center of
Unconventional Oil and Gas,
Yangtze University,
Wuhan, Hubei 430100, China;
College of Petroleum Engineering,
Yangtze University,
Wuhan, Hubei 430100, China
e-mail: hehong1103@gmail.com

Yefei Wang

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China
e-mail: wangyf@upc.edu.cn

Ziyuan Qi

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum (East China),
Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China
e-mail: 357620287@qq.com

Xiaojie Sun

Library,
Yangtze University,
Wuhan, Hubei 430100, China
e-mail: 1092538163@qq.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 26, 2014; final manuscript received December 1, 2016; published online January 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Egidio Marotta.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(1), 012911 (Jan 09, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-14-1133; doi: 10.1115/1.4035512 History: Received April 26, 2014; Revised December 01, 2016

Despite its successful application in controlling excessive water production in many mature oilfields, polymer gel is facing some application limitations under harsh reservoir conditions. To settle these problems, an environmental friendly improved inorganic aluminum gel that composed of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as main agent, urea as activator, and sodium sulfate as syneresis inhibitor was developed. The effects of mass ratios of PAC and urea, component concentrations and temperature on gelation performance were studied. The gel compatibility with various formation brines, long-term thermal stability, and permeability reduction ability were evaluated to account for the feasibility of gel application. Results showed that as the mass ratio of PAC and urea increased, the gelation time increased and the degree of syneresis decreased. The gelation time and the degree of syneresis decreased with the increase of sodium sulfate concentration, which indicated that sodium sulfate could play a role in accelerating gelation and inhibiting gel syneresis. The gelation time decreased with increasing temperature. The gel could tolerate sodium chloride concentration up to 150 g·L−1 and calcium chloride concentration up to 25 g·L−1. After aging for 120 days at 130 °C, no syneresis was observed in gel samples, which indicated that the gel had good, long-term thermal stability. The gel had good permeability reduction ability and was effective in plugging high permeability zone. Thus, these results indicated that the improved inorganic gel could be a potential candidate for conformance control under harsh reservoir conditions.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Wojtanowicz, A. K. , and Shirman, E. I. , 2002, “ Inflow Performance and Pressure Interference in Dual-Completed Wells With Water Coning Control,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 124(4), pp. 253–261. [CrossRef]
Ju, B. , Qiu, X. , Dai, S. , Fan, T. , Wu, H. , and Wang, X. , 2008, “ A Study to Prevent Bottom Water From Coning in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs: Design and Simulation Approaches,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 130(3), p. 033102. [CrossRef]
Bekbauov, B. E. , Kaltayev, A. , Wojtanowicz, A. K. , and Panfilov, M. , 2013, “ Numerical Modeling of the Effects of Disproportionate Permeability Reduction Water-Shutoff Treatments on Water Coning,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135(1), p. 011101. [CrossRef]
Xianchao, C. , Qihong, F. , and Qiang, W. , 2014, “ Performance Prediction of Gel Water Shutoff in Horizontal Wells Using a Newly Coupled Reservoir–Wellbore Model,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(2), p. 022903. [CrossRef]
Liu, Y. , Bai, B. , and Wang, Y. , 2010, “ Applied Technologies and Prospects of Conformance Control Treatments in China,” Oil Gas Sci. Technol., 65(6), pp. 859–878. [CrossRef]
You, Q. , Dai, C. , Tang, Y. , Guan, P. , Zhao, G. , and Zhao, F. , 2013, “ Study on Performance Evaluation of Dispersed Particle Gel for Improved Oil Recovery,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 135(4), p. 042903. [CrossRef]
Moradi-Araghi, A. , 2000, “ A Review of Thermally-Stable Gels for Fluid Diversion in Petroleum Production,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 26(1), pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. , Liu, H. , Zheng, Q. , Liu, Y. , Dong, X. , and Hong, C. , 2016, “ A New High-Temperature Gel for Profile Control in Heavy Oil Reservoirs,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(2), p. 022901. [CrossRef]
Bryant, S. L. , Bartosek, M. , and Lockhart, T. P. , 1997, “ Laboratory Evaluation of Phenol—Formaldehyde/Polymer Gelants for High-Temperature Applications,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 17(3), pp. 197–209. [CrossRef]
Zhao, G. , Dai, C. , Chen, A. , Yan, Z. , and Zhao, M. , 2015, “ Experimental Study and Application of Gels Formed by Nonionic Polyacrylamide and Phenolic Resin for In-Depth Profile Control,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 135, pp. 552–560. [CrossRef]
Kulawardana, E. U. , Koh, H. , Kim, D. H. , Liyanage, P. J. , Upamali, K. , Huh, C. , Weerasooriya, U. , and Pope, G. A. , 2012, “ Rheology and Transport of Improved EOR Polymers Under Harsh Reservoir Conditions,” SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, OK, Apr. 14–18, Paper No. SPE 154294.
Zhang, J. , He, H. , Wang, Y. , Xu, X. , Zhu, Y. , and Li, R. , 2014, “ Gelation Performance and Microstructure Study of Chromium Gel and Phenolic Resin Gel in Bulk and Porous Media,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(4), p. 042910. [CrossRef]
He, H. , Wang, Y. , Sun, X. , Zhang, P. , and Li, D. , 2015, “ Development and Evaluation of Organic/Inorganic Combined Gel for Conformance Control in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Reservoirs,” J. Pet. Explor. Prod. Technol., 5(2), pp. 211–217. [CrossRef]
He, H. , Wang, Y. , Zhang, J. , Xu, X. , Zhu, Y. , and Bai, S. , 2015, “ Comparison of Gelation Behavior and Morphology of Resorcinol–Hexamethylenetetramine–HPAM Gel in Bulk and Porous Media,” Transp. Porous Media, 109(2), pp. 377–392. [CrossRef]
Gommes, C. J. , and Roberts, A. P. , 2008, “ Structure Development of Resorcinol–Formaldehyde Gels: Microphase Separation or Colloid Aggregation,” Phys. Rev. E, 77(4), p. 041409. [CrossRef]
Zhuang, Y. , Pandey, S. , McCool, N. C. , and Willhite, G. , 2000, “ Permeability Modification With Sulfomethylated Resorcinol–Formaldehyde Gel System,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 3(5), pp. 386–393. [CrossRef]
Banerjee, R. , Ghosh, B. , Khilar, K. , Boukadi, F. , and Bemani, A. , 2008, “ Field Application of Phenol Formaldehyde Gel in Oil Reservoir Matrix for Water Shut-Off Purposes,” Energy Sources, Part A, 30(19), pp. 1779–1787. [CrossRef]
Jia, H. , Pu, W.-F. , Zhao, J.-Z. , and Liao, R. , 2011, “ Experimental Investigation of the Novel Phenol–Formaldehyde Cross-Linking HPAM Gel System: Based on the Secondary Cross-Linking Method of Organic Cross-Linkers and Its Gelation Performance Study After Flowing Through Porous Media,” Energy Fuels, 25(2), pp. 727–736. [CrossRef]
Sengupta, B. , Sharma, V. , and Udayabhanu, G. , 2012, “ Gelation Studies of an Organically Cross-Linked Polyacrylamide Water Shut-Off Gel System at Different Temperatures and PH,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 81, pp. 145–150. [CrossRef]
Yadav, U. S. , and Mahto, V. , 2013, “ Investigating the Effect of Several Parameters on the Gelation Behavior of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide–Hexamine–Hydroquinone Gels,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 52(28), pp. 9532–9537. [CrossRef]
Mary, H. , Wouter, B. , Aly, H. , Jarl, V. , and John, W. , 1999, “ The First Carbonate Field Application of a New Organically Crosslinked Water Shutoff Polymer System,” SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, TX, Feb. 16–19, Paper No. SPE 50738.
Reddy, B. , Eoff, L. , Dalrymple, E. D. , Black, K. , Brown, D. , and Rietjens, M. , 2003, “ A Natural Polymer-Based Cross-Linker System for Conformance Gel Systems,” SPE J., 8(02), pp. 99–106. [CrossRef]
Al-Muntasheri, G. A. , Nasr-El-Din, H. A. , and Hussein, I . A. , 2007, “ A Rheological Investigation of a High-Temperature Organic Gel Used for Water Shut-Off Treatments,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 59(1), pp. 73–83. [CrossRef]
Eoff, L. S. , Dalrymple, E. D. , Everett, D. M. , and Vasquez, J. E. , 2007, “ Worldwide Field Applications of a Polymeric Gel System for Conformance Applications,” SPE Prod. Oper., 22(2), pp. 231–235. [CrossRef]
Al-Muntasheri, G. A. , Nasr-El-Din, H. A. , Al-Noaimi, K. , and Zitha, P. L. , 2009, “ A Study of Polyacrylamide-Based Gels Crosslinked With Polyethyleneimine,” SPE J., 14(2), pp. 245–251. [CrossRef]
Al-Muntasheri, G. A. , Zitha, P. L. , and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. , 2010, “ A New Organic Gel System for Water Control: A Computed Tomography Study,” SPE J., 15(1), pp. 197–207. [CrossRef]
Nasr-El-Din, H. , and Taylor, K. , 2005, “ Evaluation of Sodium Silicate/Urea Gels Used for Water Shut-Off Treatments,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 48(3), pp. 141–160. [CrossRef]
Hamouda, A. A. , and Amiri, H. A. A. , 2014, “ Factors Affecting Alkaline Sodium Silicate Gelation for In-Depth Reservoir Profile Modification,” Energies, 7(2), pp. 568–590. [CrossRef]
Hatzignatiou, D. G. , Helleren, J. , and Stavland, A. , 2014, “ Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Core-Scale Experiments of Silicate Gels for Fluid Diversion and Flow-Zone Isolation,” SPE Prod. Oper., 29(2), pp. 122–138. [CrossRef]
Pham, L. T. , and Hatzignatiou, D. G. , 2016, “ Rheological Evaluation of a Sodium Silicate Gel System for Water Management in Mature, Naturally-Fractured Oilfields,” J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 138, pp. 218–233. [CrossRef]
Hatzignatiou, D. G. , Askarinezhad, R. , Giske, N. H. , and Stavland, A. , 2016, “ Laboratory Testing of Environmentally Friendly Sodium Silicate Systems for Water Management Through Conformance Control,” SPE Prod. Oper., 31(4), pp. 337–350. [CrossRef]
Chan, K. S. , 1989, “ Injection Conformance Modification With a New Non-Polymer Gelling System,” 40th Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society of CIM, BANFF, May 28–31, Paper No. SPE 894046.
Fragachan, F. , Cazares-Robles, F. , Gutiérrez, J. , and Herrera, G. , 1996, “ Controlling Water Production in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs With Inorganic Gel,” International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition of Mexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, Mar. 5–7, Paper No. SPE 35325.
Altunina, L. , and Kuvshinov, V. , 2000, “ Evolution Tendencies of Physico-Chemical EOR Methods,” SPE European Petroleum Conference, Paris, France, Oct. 24–25, Paper No. SPE 65173.
Altunina, L. , and Kuvshinov, V. , 2008, “ Improved Oil Recovery of High-Viscosity Oil Pools With Physicochemical Methods and Thermal-Steam Treatments,” Oil Gas Sci. Technol., 63(1), pp. 37–48. [CrossRef]
He, H. , Wang, Y. , Qi, Z. , Lv, P. , and Guo, M. , 2013, “ The Study of an Inorganic Gel for Profile Modification in High-Temperature and Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoirs,” Pet. Sci. Technol., 31(19), pp. 1940–1947. [CrossRef]
Jia, Z. , He, F. , and Liu, Z. , 2004, “ Synthesis of Polyaluminum Chloride With a Membrane Reactor: Operating Parameter Effects and Reaction Pathways,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 43(1), pp. 12–17. [CrossRef]
Liu, H.-J. , Qu, J.-H. , Hu, C.-Z. , and Zhang, S.-J. , 2003, “ Characteristics of Nanosized Polyaluminum Chloride Coagulant Prepared by Electrolysis Process,” Colloids Surf., A, 216(1), pp. 139–147. [CrossRef]
Zhou, W. , Gao, B. , Yue, Q. , Liu, L. , and Wang, Y. , 2006, “ Al-Ferron Kinetics and Quantitative Calculation of Al (III) Species in Polyaluminum Chloride Coagulants,” Colloids Surf., A, 278(1), pp. 235–240. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The gel shape before and after gelation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The gel quality description: (a) cloudy, (b) weak gel, and (c) good gel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Effect of temperature on gelation time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Arrhenius-type plot of gelation time and temperature (10.0 wt.% PAC + 2.22 wt.% urea + 0.4% sodium sulfate)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The injected pressure versus injected pore volumes after gel treatment (10.0 wt.% PAC + 2.22 wt.% urea + 0.4% sodium sulfate)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In