0
Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Scaling Criteria for Waterflooding and Immiscible CO2 Flooding in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

[+] Author and Article Information
Deyue Zhou

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada

Daoyong Yang

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
e-mail: tony.yang@uregina.ca

1Present address: SaskEnergy Inc., 600-1777 Victoria Avenue, Regina, SK, S4P 4K5 Canada.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 6, 2016; final manuscript received December 11, 2016; published online January 16, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(2), 022909 (Jan 16, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1236; doi: 10.1115/1.4035513 History: Received June 06, 2016; Revised December 11, 2016

Scaling criteria have been developed and validated to evaluate performance of waterflooding and immiscible CO2 flooding in heavy oil reservoirs by using a three-dimensional (3D) sandpacked displacement model. Experimentally, the 3D physical model consisting of a pair of horizontal wells together with five vertical wells is used to conduct waterflooding and immiscible CO2 flooding processes, respectively. Theoretically, mathematical formulae have been developed for waterflooding and immiscible CO2 flooding by performing dimensional and inspectional analyses. The scaling group of the gravitational force to viscous force is found to be negligible when scaling up a model to its prototype. The relaxed scaling criteria are validated by comparing the simulation results of a synthetic reservoir with experimental measurements and then extended for a field application. There also exists a reasonably good agreement between the laboratory measurements and the field application with the determined scaling criteria.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Canada National Energy Board, 2005, “ Short-Term Outlook for Canadian Crude Oil,” National Energy Board, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Das, S. K. , 1998, “ VAPEX: An Efficient Process for the Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen,” SPE J., 3(3), pp. 232–237. [CrossRef]
James, L. A. , Rezaei, N. , and Chatzis, I. , 2008, “ VAPEX, Warm VAPEX and Hybrid VAPEX—The State of Enhanced Oil Recovery for In Situ Heavy Oils in Canada,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 47(4), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2016, “ Determination of Individual Diffusion Coefficients of C3H8-n-C4H10-CO2-Heavy Oil Systems at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures by Dynamic Volume Analysis,” SPE J. (preprint).
Naderi, K. , and Babadagli, T. , 2016, “ Solvent Selection Criteria and Optimal Application Conditions for Heavy-Oil/Bitumen Recovery at Elevated Temperatures: A Review and Comparative Analysis,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(1), p. 012904. [CrossRef]
Li, H. , Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2013, “ Enhanced Swelling Effect and Viscosity Reduction of Solvent(s)/CO2/Heavy-Oil Systems,” SPE J., 18(4), pp. 695–707. [CrossRef]
Beeson, D. M. , and Ortloff, G. D. , 1959, “ Laboratory Investigation of the Water-Driven Carbon Dioxide Process for Oil Recovery,” J. Pet. Technol., 11(4), pp. 63–66. [CrossRef]
Spivak, A. , Garrison, W. H. , and Nguyen, J. P. , 1990, “ Review of an Immiscible CO2 Project, Tar Zone, Fault Block V, Wilmington Field, California,” SPE Reservoir Eng., 5(2), pp. 155–162. [CrossRef]
Mathiassen, O. M. , 2003, “ CO2 as Injection Gas for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Estimation of the Potential on the Norwegian Continental Shelf: Part 1,” Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Sahin, S. , Kalfa, U. , and Celebioglu, D. , 2008, “ Bati Raman Field Immiscible CO2 Application–Status Quo and Future Plans,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 11(4), pp. 778–791. [CrossRef]
Rojas, G. A. , 1985, “ Scaled Model Studies of Immiscible Carbon Dioxide Displacement of Heavy Oil,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2013, “ Pressure Maintenance and Improving Oil Recovery by Means of Immiscible Water-Alternating-CO2 Processes in Thin Heavy-Oil Reservoirs,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 16(1), pp. 60–71. [CrossRef]
Saner, W. B. , and Patton, J. T. , 1986, “ CO2 Recovery of Heavy Oil: Wilmington Field Test,” J. Pet. Technol., 38(7), pp. 769–776. [CrossRef]
Ammer, J. R. , Enick, R. M. , and Klara, S. M. , 1991, “ Modeling the Performance of Horizontal Injection Wells in Carbon Dioxide Miscible Displacement Processes,” 11th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, Anaheim, CA, Feb. 17–20, Paper No. SPE 21220.
Farahi, M. M. M. , Rasaei, M. R. , Rostami, B. , and Alizadeh, M. , 2014, “ Scaling Analysis and Modeling of Immiscible Forced Gravity Drainage Process,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(2), p. 022901. [CrossRef]
Geertsma, J. , Croes, G. A. , and Schwarz, N. , 1956, “ Theory of Dimensionally Scaled Models of Petroleum Reservoirs,” Pet. Trans. AIME, 207(19), pp. 118–127.
Loomis, A. G. , and Crowell, D. C. , 1964, “ Theory and Application of Dimensional and Inspectional Analysis to Model Study of Fluid Displacements in Petroleum Reservoirs,” Bureau of Mines, Washington, DC.
Leverett, M. C. , Lewis, W. B. , and True, M. E. , 1942, “ Dimensional-Model Studies of Oil-Field Behavior,” Trans. AIME, 146(1), pp. 175–193. [CrossRef]
Rapoport, L. A. , 1954, “ Scaling Laws for Use in Design and Operation of Water-Oil Flow Models,” SPE Petroleum Branch Fall Meeting, San Antonio, TX, Oct. 17–20, Paper No. SPE 415-G.
Van Daalen, F. , and van Domselaar, H. R. , 1972, “ Scaled Fluid-Flow Models With Geometry Differing From That of Prototype,” SPE J., 12(3), pp. 220–228. [CrossRef]
Li, D. , and Lake, L. W. , 1995, “ Scaling Fluid Flow Through Heterogeneous Permeable Media,” SPE J., 1(3), pp. 188–197.
Engelberts, W. F. , and Klikenberg, L. J. , 1951, “ Laboratory Experiments on the Displacement of Oil by Water From Packs of Granular Material,” 3rd World Petroleum Congress, Hague, The Netherlands, May 28–June 6, Paper No. 4138.
Langhaar, H. L. , 1951, Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Models, Wiley, New York.
Craig, F. F., Jr. , Sanderlin, J. L. , and Moore, D. W. , 1957, “ A Laboratory Study of Gravity Segregation in Frontal Drives,” SPE Petroleum Branch Fall Meeting in Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 14–17, Paper No. SPE 676-G.
Buckingham, E. , 1914, “ On Physically Similar Systems: Illustrations of the Use of Dimensional Equations,” Phys. Rev., 4(2), pp. 345–376. [CrossRef]
Zhou, D. , 2015, “ Development of Scaling Criteria for Waterflooding and Immiscible CO2 Flooding in Unconventional Reservoirs,” M.Sc. thesis, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada.
Bentsen, R. G. , 1976, “ Scaled Fluid-Flow Models With Permeabilities Differing From That of the Prototype,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 15(3), pp. 46–52.
Rojas, G. A. , and Ali, S. M. F. , 1986, “ Scaled Model Studies of Carbon Dioxide/Brine Injection Strategies for Heavy Oil Recovery From Thin Formations,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 25(1), pp. 85–94. [CrossRef]
Perkins, F. M. , and Collins, R. E. , 1960, “ Scaling Laws for Laboratory Flow Models of Oil Reservoirs,” J. Pet. Technol., 12(8), pp. 69–71. [CrossRef]
Perkins, T. K. , and Johnston, O. C. , 1963, “ A Review of Diffusion and Dispersion in Porous Media,” SPE J., 3(1), pp. 70–84. [CrossRef]
Doscher, T. M. , and Gharib, S. , 1983, “ Physically Scaled Model Studies Simulating the Displacement of Residual Oil by Miscible Fluids,” SPE J., 23(3), pp. 440–446. [CrossRef]
Yang, G. , and Butler, R. M. , 1992, “ Effects of Reservoir Heterogeneities on Heavy Oil Recovery by Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 31(8), pp. 37–44. [CrossRef]
Tang, G. , Sahni, A. , Gadelle, F. , Kumar, M. , and Kovscek, A. R. , 2006, “ Heavy-Oil Solution Gas Drive in Consolidated and Unconsolidated Rock,” SPE J., 11(2), pp. 259–268. [CrossRef]
Pozzi, A. L. , and Blackwell, R. J. , 1963, “ Design of Laboratory Models for Study of Miscible Displacement,” SPE J., 3(1), pp. 28–40. [CrossRef]
Grogan, A. T. , Pinczewski, V. W. , Ruskauff, G. J. , and Orr, F. M., Jr. , 1988, “ Diffusion of CO2 at Reservoir Conditions: Models and Measurements,” SPE Reservoir Eng., 3(1), pp. 93–102. [CrossRef]
Yang, D. , and Gu, Y. , 2008, “ Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Interface Mass-Transfer Coefficients of the Crude Oil-CO2 Systems by Analysis of the Dynamic and Equilibrium Interfacial Tensions,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 47(15), pp. 5447–5455. [CrossRef]
Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Experimental and Theoretical Determination of Diffusion Coefficients of CO2-Heavy Oil Systems by Coupling Heat and Mass Transfer,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(2), p. 022901. [CrossRef]
Adams, D. M. , 1982, “ Experiences With Waterflooding Lloydminster Heavy-Oil Reservoirs,” J. Pet. Technol., 34(8), pp. 1643–1650. [CrossRef]
Chang, Y. , Coats, B. K. , and Nolen, J. S. , 1998, “ A Compositional Model for CO2 Floods Including CO2 Solubility in Water,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 1(2), pp. 155–160. [CrossRef]
Yang, D. , Tontiwachwuthikul, P. , and Gu, Y. , 2005, “ Interfacial Interactions Between Reservoir Brine and CO2 at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures,” Energy Fuels, 19(1), pp. 216–223. [CrossRef]
Yang, D. , Tontiwachwuthikul, P. , and Gu, Y. , 2005, “ Interfacial Tensions of the Crude Oil + Reservoir Brine + CO2 Systems at Pressures up to 31 MPa and Temperatures of 27 °C and 58 °C,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 50(4), pp. 1242–1249. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Yang, D. , and Song, C. , 2016, “ A Damped Iterative EnKF Method to Estimate Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure for Tight Formations From Displacement Experiments,” Fuel, 167(5), pp. 306–315. [CrossRef]
IHS, Inc., 2014, “ AccuMap Oil and Gas Exploration and Evaluation Mapping Software,” IHS (Canada), Englewood, CO.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the 3D displacement experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Three-dimensional view of the synthetic reservoir model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental measurements of immiscible water and CO2 flooding of heavy oil: (a) oil recovery and flow rate and (b) water-cut and injector bottom-hole pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves: (a) water–oil system and (b) liquid–gas system for experimental displacement of heavy oil by water and CO2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

History matching results of synthetic reservoir case: (a) oil recovery and water cut and (b) injector bottom-hole pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental measurements of waterflooding of heavy oil by Rojas [11]: (a) cumulative oil recovery and injection well bottom-hole pressure (BHP) and (b) pressure drop and water-cut

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Three-dimensional view of Rojas's sandpack model [11]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves for Rojas's waterflooding [11]: (a) water–oil system and (b) liquid–gas system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of simulation results and experimental measurements for Rojas's waterflooding [11]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Location of Northminster Sparky pool [43]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

A 3D view of the numerical simulation model of Northminster Sparky pool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Relative permeability curves and capillary pressure curves of field reservoir model: (a) oil–water system and (b) liquid–gas system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

History matching results for the Northminster Sparky reservoir production: (a) cumulative oil production and water-cut and (b) oil rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of experimental measurements and simulation results of the field reservoir: (a) oil recovery and well BHP and (b) water-cut

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In