Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Scaling Criteria for Waterflooding and Immiscible CO2 Flooding in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

[+] Author and Article Information
Deyue Zhou

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada

Daoyong Yang

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
e-mail: tony.yang@uregina.ca

1Present address: SaskEnergy Inc., 600-1777 Victoria Avenue, Regina, SK, S4P 4K5 Canada.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 6, 2016; final manuscript received December 11, 2016; published online January 16, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(2), 022909 (Jan 16, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1236; doi: 10.1115/1.4035513 History: Received June 06, 2016; Revised December 11, 2016

Scaling criteria have been developed and validated to evaluate performance of waterflooding and immiscible CO2 flooding in heavy oil reservoirs by using a three-dimensional (3D) sandpacked displacement model. Experimentally, the 3D physical model consisting of a pair of horizontal wells together with five vertical wells is used to conduct waterflooding and immiscible CO2 flooding processes, respectively. Theoretically, mathematical formulae have been developed for waterflooding and immiscible CO2 flooding by performing dimensional and inspectional analyses. The scaling group of the gravitational force to viscous force is found to be negligible when scaling up a model to its prototype. The relaxed scaling criteria are validated by comparing the simulation results of a synthetic reservoir with experimental measurements and then extended for a field application. There also exists a reasonably good agreement between the laboratory measurements and the field application with the determined scaling criteria.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the 3D displacement experimental setup

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Fig. 2

Three-dimensional view of the synthetic reservoir model

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Fig. 3

Experimental measurements of immiscible water and CO2 flooding of heavy oil: (a) oil recovery and flow rate and (b) water-cut and injector bottom-hole pressure

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Fig. 4

Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves: (a) water–oil system and (b) liquid–gas system for experimental displacement of heavy oil by water and CO2

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Fig. 5

History matching results of synthetic reservoir case: (a) oil recovery and water cut and (b) injector bottom-hole pressure

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Fig. 6

Experimental measurements of waterflooding of heavy oil by Rojas [11]: (a) cumulative oil recovery and injection well bottom-hole pressure (BHP) and (b) pressure drop and water-cut

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Fig. 7

Three-dimensional view of Rojas's sandpack model [11]

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Fig. 8

Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves for Rojas's waterflooding [11]: (a) water–oil system and (b) liquid–gas system

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Fig. 9

Comparison of simulation results and experimental measurements for Rojas's waterflooding [11]

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Fig. 10

Location of Northminster Sparky pool [43]

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Fig. 11

A 3D view of the numerical simulation model of Northminster Sparky pool

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Fig. 12

Relative permeability curves and capillary pressure curves of field reservoir model: (a) oil–water system and (b) liquid–gas system

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Fig. 13

History matching results for the Northminster Sparky reservoir production: (a) cumulative oil production and water-cut and (b) oil rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of experimental measurements and simulation results of the field reservoir: (a) oil recovery and well BHP and (b) water-cut



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