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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

In-Furnace Sulfur Capture by Cofiring Coal With Alkali-Based Sorbents

[+] Author and Article Information
Emad Rokni

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
334 SN, Northeastern University,
360 Huntington Avenue,
Boston, MA 02115
e-mail: Rokni.e@husky.neu.edu

Hsun Hsein Chi

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
334 SN, Northeastern University,
360 Huntington Avenue,
Boston, MA 02115
e-mail: Chi.h@husky.neu.edu

Yiannis A. Levendis

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
334 SN, Northeastern University,
360 Huntington Avenue,
Boston, MA 02115
e-mail: Y.levendis@northeastern.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 30, 2016; final manuscript received December 23, 2016; published online March 8, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(4), 042204 (Mar 08, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1485; doi: 10.1115/1.4035752 History: Received November 30, 2016; Revised December 23, 2016

This manuscript presents experimental results on the reduction of sulfur oxide emissions from combustion of a high-sulfur content pulverized bituminous coal (Illinois #6 Macoupin) using a dry sorbent injection method. The coal particles were in the size range of 90–125 μm and were blended with calcium-, sodium-, potassium-, and magnesium-containing powdered sorbents at different proportions. The alkali/sulfur molar ratios were chosen to correspond to stoichiometric proportions (Ca/S = 1, Mg/S = 1, Na2/S = 1, and K2/S = 1) and the effectiveness of each alkali or alkali earth based sorbent was evaluated separately. Combustion of coal took place in a drop-tube furnace, electrically heated to 1400 K under fuel-lean conditions. The evolution of combustion effluent gases, such as NOx, SO2, and CO2 was monitored and compared among the different sorbent cases. The use of these sorbents helps to resolve the potential of different alkali metals for effective in-furnace sulfur oxide capture and possible NOx reduction. It also assesses the effectiveness of various chemical compounds of the alkalis, such as oxides, carbonates, peroxides, and acetates. Reductions in SO2 emissions were in the range of 5–72%, with sodium being the most effective metal followed by potassium, calcium, and then magnesium. Acetates were effective as dual SO2 and NOx reduction agents.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the electrically heated laminar-flow drop tube furnace setup for coal combustion and emissions monitoring

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Fig. 2

Carbon dioxide fractions (%) in the effluent

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Fig. 3

Oxygen mole fractions (%) in the effluent

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Fig. 4

Mole fractions of sulfur dioxide (ppm) in the furnace effluents

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Fig. 5

Mole fractions of nitrogen oxide NOx (ppm) in the effluent

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Fig. 6

(Top) Equilibrium constants and (bottom) sulfur dioxide mole fractions with respect to furnace temperature. In both figures the ascending/descending orders of the curves correspond to those shown in the legends.

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Fig. 7

SEM photographs of sorbents particles: (a) CaO, (b) CaO2, (c) CaCO3, (d) Ca(CH3CO2)2, (e) Na2O, (f) Na2CO3, and (g) K2CO3

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