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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Wormhole Propagation in Carbonate Acidizing

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinfang Ma

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
18th, Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: maxinfang@cup.edu.cn

Jianye Mou

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
18th, Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: moujianye@cup.edu.cn

Hun Lin

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
18th, Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: linhun016@aliyun.com

Feng Jiang

Anhui Special Equipment Inspection Institute,
45th, Dalian Road,
Hefei 230051, Anhui Province, China
e-mail: jiangfeng_N@163.com

Kaiyu Liu

CNPC Great Wall Drilling Company,
Panjin 124100, Liaoning Province, China
e-mail: liukaiyu666@163.com

Xinzhe Zhao

College of Petroleum Engineering,
China University of Petroleum,
18th, Fuxue Road, Changping District,
Beijing 102249, China
e-mail: bsyzhaoxinzhe@163.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 6, 2016; final manuscript received January 30, 2017; published online February 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Reza Sheikhi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(4), 042002 (Feb 24, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1361; doi: 10.1115/1.4035909 History: Received September 06, 2016; Revised January 30, 2017

In acidizing operations, the acid flows selectively through large pores to create wormholes. Wormhole propagation has been studied by many experts at macroscopic scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann model (LBM), which is a mesoscopic scale method, is adopted to simulate the flow, acid–rock reaction, and rock dissolution in porous media at mesoscopic scale. In this model, a new method based on nonequilibrium extrapolation is proposed to deal with the reactive boundary. On the basis of the model, extensive simulations are conducted on the propagation behavior of wormholes, and the factors influencing wormhole propagation are investigated systematically. The results show that the LBM is a reliable numerical technique to study chemical dissolution in porous media at mesoscopic scale, and that the new method of dealing with the reaction boundary performs well. The breakthrough time decreases with the increase of acid concentration, but acid concentration does not affect the ultimate dissolution pattern. As the reaction rate constant increases, shorter wormholes are created. A higher hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient will result in shorter but wider wormholes. These findings agree well with the previous experimental and theoretical analyses. This study demonstrates the mechanism of wormholing that the unstable growth of pores by the acid rock reaction makes the acid selectively flow through a few large pores which finally form wormholes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematics of the D2Q9 lattice model

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Fig. 2

Schematics of the D2Q4 lattice model

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Fig. 3

Boundary types in the simulation

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Fig. 4

The boundary condition in simulation zone

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Fig. 5

The comparison between the numerical and analytical concentration field when Da = 4.0

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Fig. 6

The comparison between the numerical and analytical concentration field when Da = 40.0

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Fig. 7

The initial pore structure of unequal channel

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Fig. 8

The concentration field when simulation is finished

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Fig. 9

The pore structure when simulation is finished

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Fig. 10

Pore structure display generated with PFC

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Fig. 11

Concentration and pore structure at different times (upper: acid concentration pattern; below: pore structure pattern)

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Fig. 12

Change of permeability with time

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Fig. 13

Change of porosity with time

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Fig. 14

Pore structure and concentration distribution at different acid concentrations

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Fig. 15

Change of permeability with time at different concentrations

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Fig. 16

Concentration distribution and pore structure at different concentrations during breakthrough

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Fig. 17

Concentration distribution and pore structure for the reaction rate of 0.1 mm/s

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Fig. 18

Concentration distribution and pore structure for the reaction rate of 0.8 mm/s

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Fig. 19

Concentration distribution and pore structure for four different diffusion coefficients

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