0
Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Wind–Wave Interaction Effects on a Wind Farm Power Production

[+] Author and Article Information
A. AlSam

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: ali.al_sam@energy.lth.se

R. Szasz

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: robert-zoltan.szasz@energy.lth.se

J. Revstedt

Professor
Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: johan.revstedt@energy.lth.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 2, 2016; final manuscript received March 10, 2017; published online May 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ryo Amano.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(5), 051213 (May 16, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1438; doi: 10.1115/1.4036542 History: Received November 02, 2016; Revised March 10, 2017

In the current study, the effects of the nonlocally generated long sea surface waves (swells) on the power production of a 2 × 2 wind farm are investigated by using large-eddy simulations (LES) and actuator-line method (ALM). The short sea waves are modeled as a roughness height, while the wave-induced stress accounting for swell effects is added as an external source term to the momentum equations. The results show that the marine atmospheric boundary layers (MABLs) obtained in this study have similar characteristics as the MABLs observed during the swell conditions by many other studies. The current results indicate also that swells have significant impacts on the MABL. As a consequence of these changes in the MABL, swells moving faster than the wind and aligned with the local wind direction increase the power extraction rate.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Al Sam, A. , Szasz, R. , and Revstedt, J. , 2014, “ The Effect of Moving Waves on Neutral Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” ITM Web Conf., 2, p. 01003.
AlSam, A. , Szasz, R. , and Revstedt, J. , 2015, “ The Influence of Sea Waves on Offshore Wind Turbine Aerodynamics,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(5), p. 051209. [CrossRef]
Sullivan, P. , Edson, J. , Hristov, T. , and McWilliams, J. , 2008, “ Large-Eddy Simulations and Observations of Atmospheric Marine Boundary Layers Above Nonequilibrium Surface Waves,” J. Atmos. Sci., 65(4), pp. 1225–1245. [CrossRef]
Sullivan, P. P. , McWilliams, J. C. , and Moeng, C.-H. , 2000, “ Simulation of Turbulent Flow Over Idealized Water Waves,” J. Fluid Mech., 404, pp. 47–85. [CrossRef]
Nilsson, E. O. , Rutgersson, A. , Smedman, A.-S. , and Sullivan, P. P. , 2012, “ Convective Boundary-Layer Structure in the Presence of Wind-Following Swell,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 138(667), pp. 1476–1489. [CrossRef]
Semedo, A. , Sušeli, K. , Rutgersson, A. , and Sterl, A. , 2011, “ A Global View on the Wind Sea and Swell Climate and Variability From ERA-40,” J. Clim., 24(5), pp. 1461–1479. [CrossRef]
Hanley, K. E. , Belcher, S. E. , and Sullivan, P. P. , 2010, “ A Global Climatology of Wind–Wave Interaction,” J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40(6), pp. 1263–1282. [CrossRef]
Chen, G. , Chapron, B. , Ezraty, R. , and Vandemark, D. , 2002, “ A Global View of Swell and Wind Sea Climate in the Ocean by Satellite Altimeter and Scatterometer,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19(11), pp. 1849–1859. [CrossRef]
Ivanell, S. , Mikkelsen, R. , Sørensen, J. N. , and Henningson, D. , 2008, “ Three-Dimensional Actuator Disc Modelling of Wind Farm Wake Interaction,” European Wind Energy Conferences and Exhibition (EWEC), Brussels, Belgium, Mar. 31–Apr. 3, pp. 3038–3047.
Deardorff, J. , 1980, “ Stratocumulus-Capped Mixed Layers Derived From a Three-Dimensional Model,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 18(4), pp. 495–527. [CrossRef]
Moeng, C.-H. , and Wyngaard, J. C. , 1988, “ Spectral Analysis of Large-Eddy Simulations of Convective Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci., 45(23), pp. 3573–3587. [CrossRef]
Sullivan, P. P. , and McWilliams, J. C. , 2010, “ Dynamics of Winds and Currents Coupled to Surface Waves,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 42(1), pp. 19–42. [CrossRef]
Semedo, A. , Saetra, Ø. , Rutgersson, A. , Kahma, K. K. , and Pettersson, H. , 2009, “ Wave-Induced Wind in the Marine Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci., 66(8), pp. 2256–2271. [CrossRef]
Jonkman, J. , Butterfield, S. , Musial, W. , and Scott, G. , 2009, “ Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development,” Technical Report No. NREL/TP-500-38060.
Sørensen, J. N. , and Shen, W. Z. , 2002, “ Numerical Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 124(2), pp. 393–399. [CrossRef]
Churchfield, M. , 2011, “ Wind Energy/Atmospheric Boundary Layer Tools and Tutorials,” Sixth OpenFOAM Workshop, State College, PA, June 13–16, pp. 1–70.
Churchfield, M. J. , Moriarty, P. J. , Vijayakumar, G. , and Brasseur, J. G. , 2010, “ Wind Energy-Related Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Large-Eddy Simulation Using OpenFOAM,” Technical Report No. NREL CP-500-48905.
Lee, S. , Churchfield, M. , Moriarty, P. , Jonkman, J. , and Michalakes, J. , 2011, “ Atmospheric and Wake Turbulence Impacts on Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading,” Technical Report No. NREL CP-5000-53567.
Churchfield, M. J. , Lee, S. , Moriarty, P. , Martinez, L. A. , Leonardi, S. , Vijayakumar, G. , and Brasseur, J. G. , 2012, “ A Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics,” Technical Report No. NREL CP-5000-53554.
Hanley, K. , and Belcher, S. , 2008, “ Wave-Driven Wind Jets in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer,” J. Atmos. Sci., 65(8), pp. 2646–2660. [CrossRef]
Högström, U. , Smedman, A. , Sahlée, E. , Drennan, W. , Kahma, K. , Pettersson, H. , and Zhang, F. , 2009, “ The Atmospheric Boundary Layer During Swell: A Field Study and Interpretation of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget for High Wave Ages,” J. Atmos. Sci., 66(9), pp. 2764–2779. [CrossRef]
Smedman, A. , Tjernström, M. , and Högström, U. , 1994, “ The Near-Neutral Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer With No Surface Shearing Stress: A Case Study,” J. Atmos. Sci., 51(23), pp. 3399–3411. [CrossRef]
Smedman, A.-S. , Högström, U. , and Bergström, H. , 1997, “ The Turbulence Regime of a Very Stable Marine Airflow With Quasi-Frictional Decoupling,” J. Geophys. Res., 102(C9), pp. 21049–21059. [CrossRef]
Smedman, A. , Tjernström, S. , Högström, U. , Bergström, H. , Rutgersson, A. , Kahma, K. K. , and Pettersson, H. , 1999, “ A Case Study of Air-Sea Interaction During Swell Conditions,” J. Geophys. Res., 104(C11), pp. 25833–25851. [CrossRef]
Smedman, A. , Tjernström, M. , and Sjöblom, A. , 2003, “ A Note on Velocity Spectra in the Marine Boundary Layer,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 109(1), pp. 27–48. [CrossRef]
Smedman, A. , Högström, U. , and Sahlée, E. , 2009, “ Observational Study of Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Characteristics During Swell,” J. Atmos. Sci., 66(9), pp. 2747–2763. [CrossRef]
Pope, S. , 2000, Turbulent Flows, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Wagner, R. , Courtney, M. , Gottschall, J. , and Lindelöw-Marsden, P. , 2011, “ Accounting for the Speed Shear in Wind Turbine Power Performance Measurement,” Wind Energy, 14(8), pp. 993–1004. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The geometry and the mesh used to simulate the wind farm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

LES resolution and subgrid scale stresses’ contribution of the WOS case: (a) the ratio of the subgrid (SGS) to total (tot) turbulent kinetic energy, (b) the filtered, SGS, and total turbulent kinematic shear stresses normalized by the total kinematic shear stress at the surface, (c) the power spectra of the streamwise fluctuation velocity at the two probe points, and (d) the time- and space-averaged horizontal wind speed of three different mesh resolutions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Time- and space-average of (a) the horizontal wind speeds and (b) the horizontal wind speed directions. The black lines are a schematic depiction of the studied wind turbine.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Time- and space-average of the atmospheric turbulence: (a) the turbulent kinetic energy, (b) the turbulent intensity, and (c) the magnitude of the turbulent kinematic shear stress

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The kinematic shear stresses normalized by their kinetic energy of (a) the WOS case and (b) the WS case, and (c) the anisotropy invariant maps of the kinematic shear stresses of the two cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The total streamwise kinematic turbulent shear stress (uw) and its components of the WS case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Velocity fluctuations (u in the upper part and w in the lower part) of a plane at 25 m above the surface. The left side is the WOS case, and the right side is the WS case. Note that the color scale of the WOS case is four times larger than the WS case.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Velocity fluctuations (u in the upper part and w in the lower part) of a plane at 90 m above the surface. The left side is the WOS case, and the right side is the WS case. Note that the color scale of the WOS case is four times larger than the WS case.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The turbulence quadrant analysis of 25 m (upper part) and 90 m (lower part) planes above the surface. The left side is the WOS case, and the right side is the WS case.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Isosurfaces of the λ2 criterion colored by the mean velocity values. The cases are (a) WOS, (b) WOFS, and (c) WS.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The 2 × 2 wind farm velocities, (a)–(c) is the instantaneous velocity and (d)–(f) is the mean velocity, of a horizontal plane parallel to the surface taken at the hub height plane. The cases are WOS ((a) and (d)), WOFS ((b) and (e)), and WS ((c) and (f)) from the left to the right, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The 2 × 2 wind farm velocities, (a)–(c) is the instantaneous velocities and (d)–(f) is the mean velocities, of a vertical plane perpendicular to the WTs in the right column of wind farm. The cases are WOS ((a) and (d)), WOFS ((b) and (e)), and WS ((c) and (f)).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The turbine power productions: (a) the power production of the whole wind farm, (b) the power productions of the upstream turbines, and (c) the ratio between the upstream and downstream turbines’ power production

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In