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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

Wind–Wave Interaction Effects on a Wind Farm Power Production

[+] Author and Article Information
A. AlSam

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: ali.al_sam@energy.lth.se

R. Szasz

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: robert-zoltan.szasz@energy.lth.se

J. Revstedt

Professor
Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: johan.revstedt@energy.lth.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 2, 2016; final manuscript received March 10, 2017; published online May 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ryo Amano.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(5), 051213 (May 16, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1438; doi: 10.1115/1.4036542 History: Received November 02, 2016; Revised March 10, 2017

In the current study, the effects of the nonlocally generated long sea surface waves (swells) on the power production of a 2 × 2 wind farm are investigated by using large-eddy simulations (LES) and actuator-line method (ALM). The short sea waves are modeled as a roughness height, while the wave-induced stress accounting for swell effects is added as an external source term to the momentum equations. The results show that the marine atmospheric boundary layers (MABLs) obtained in this study have similar characteristics as the MABLs observed during the swell conditions by many other studies. The current results indicate also that swells have significant impacts on the MABL. As a consequence of these changes in the MABL, swells moving faster than the wind and aligned with the local wind direction increase the power extraction rate.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The geometry and the mesh used to simulate the wind farm

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Fig. 2

LES resolution and subgrid scale stresses’ contribution of the WOS case: (a) the ratio of the subgrid (SGS) to total (tot) turbulent kinetic energy, (b) the filtered, SGS, and total turbulent kinematic shear stresses normalized by the total kinematic shear stress at the surface, (c) the power spectra of the streamwise fluctuation velocity at the two probe points, and (d) the time- and space-averaged horizontal wind speed of three different mesh resolutions

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Fig. 3

Time- and space-average of (a) the horizontal wind speeds and (b) the horizontal wind speed directions. The black lines are a schematic depiction of the studied wind turbine.

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Fig. 4

Time- and space-average of the atmospheric turbulence: (a) the turbulent kinetic energy, (b) the turbulent intensity, and (c) the magnitude of the turbulent kinematic shear stress

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Fig. 5

The kinematic shear stresses normalized by their kinetic energy of (a) the WOS case and (b) the WS case, and (c) the anisotropy invariant maps of the kinematic shear stresses of the two cases

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Fig. 6

The total streamwise kinematic turbulent shear stress (uw) and its components of the WS case

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Fig. 7

Velocity fluctuations (u in the upper part and w in the lower part) of a plane at 25 m above the surface. The left side is the WOS case, and the right side is the WS case. Note that the color scale of the WOS case is four times larger than the WS case.

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Fig. 8

Velocity fluctuations (u in the upper part and w in the lower part) of a plane at 90 m above the surface. The left side is the WOS case, and the right side is the WS case. Note that the color scale of the WOS case is four times larger than the WS case.

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Fig. 9

The turbulence quadrant analysis of 25 m (upper part) and 90 m (lower part) planes above the surface. The left side is the WOS case, and the right side is the WS case.

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Fig. 10

Isosurfaces of the λ2 criterion colored by the mean velocity values. The cases are (a) WOS, (b) WOFS, and (c) WS.

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Fig. 11

The 2 × 2 wind farm velocities, (a)–(c) is the instantaneous velocity and (d)–(f) is the mean velocity, of a horizontal plane parallel to the surface taken at the hub height plane. The cases are WOS ((a) and (d)), WOFS ((b) and (e)), and WS ((c) and (f)) from the left to the right, respectively.

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Fig. 12

The 2 × 2 wind farm velocities, (a)–(c) is the instantaneous velocities and (d)–(f) is the mean velocities, of a vertical plane perpendicular to the WTs in the right column of wind farm. The cases are WOS ((a) and (d)), WOFS ((b) and (e)), and WS ((c) and (f)).

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Fig. 13

The turbine power productions: (a) the power production of the whole wind farm, (b) the power productions of the upstream turbines, and (c) the ratio between the upstream and downstream turbines’ power production

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