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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Performance of a Diesel Engine at High Coolant Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Jonas Adler

Interdisciplinary Thermal Science Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Colorado State University,
1374 Campus Delivery,
Fort Collins, CO 80523

Todd Bandhauer

Interdisciplinary Thermal Science Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Colorado State University,
1374 Campus Delivery,
Fort Collins, CO 80523
e-mail: tband@colostate.edu

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 8, 2016; final manuscript received March 26, 2017; published online June 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(6), 062203 (Jun 27, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1326; doi: 10.1115/1.4036771 History: Received August 08, 2016; Revised March 26, 2017

The current state of the art in waste heat recovery (WHR) from internal combustion engines (ICEs) is limited in part by the low temperature of the engine coolant. In the present study, the effects of operating a diesel engine at elevated coolant temperatures to improve utilization of engine coolant waste heat are investigated. An energy balance was performed on a modified three-cylinder diesel engine at six different coolant temperatures (90 °C, 100 °C, 125 °C, 150 °C, 175 °C, and 200 °C) and 15 different engine loads to determine the impact on waste heat as the coolant temperature increased. The relative brake efficiency of the engine alone decreased between 4.5% and 7.3% as the coolant temperature was increased from 90 °C to 150 °C. However, the engine coolant exergy increased between 20% and 40% over the same interval. The exhaust exergy also increased between 14% and 28% for a total waste heat exergy increase between 19% and 25%. The engine condition was evaluated after testing and problem areas were identified such as overexpansion of pistons, oil breakdown at the piston rings, and head gasket seal failure.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Energy balance for a typical automotive diesel engine at high load [15,17]

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Fig. 2

Diagram of test facility showing cooling and oil systems and all instrumentation

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Fig. 3

Regression analysis results for 3100 rpm and 18 N·m of torque used to determine correlations between parameters and coolant temperature and their significance using a 95% confidence interval

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Fig. 4

Results of energy balance on the test engine at 3100 rpm and 18 N·m of torque showing absolute values (top) and values as a percentage of fuel energy entering the engine (bottom)

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Fig. 5

Comparison of leakage rates for engine oil and HTF with fuel flow and engine brake efficiency for 3100 rpm and 18 N·m of torque

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Fig. 6

Waste heat from engine coolant and exhaust with the corresponding exergy for each source at 3100 rpm and 18 N·m of torque

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Fig. 7

Exhaust temperatures for five load points over the measured coolant temperature range at an engine speed of 3100 rpm

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Fig. 8

Engine efficiency for 3100 rpm at five load points over the measured coolant temperature range

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Fig. 9

Exhaust emissions data with mass air flow rate at 3100 rpm and 18 N·m of torque

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Fig. 10

Cylinder compression test results over the course of testing. Compression tests were performed with the engine cold after completion of testing for the given temperature.

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Fig. 11

Oil analysis results including metal content in parts per million per hour and oxidation in spectral absorbance units

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Fig. 12

Documentation of piston condition showing pistons before (top) and after (bottom) testing

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