0
Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Experimental and Theoretical Quantification of Nonequilibrium Phase Behavior and Physical Properties of Foamy Oil Under Reservoir Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Yu Shi

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
e-mail: shiyu202@uregina.ca

Daoyong Yang

Petroleum Systems Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Regina,
Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
e-mail: tony.yang@uregina.ca

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received March 2, 2017; final manuscript received May 3, 2017; published online July 17, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(6), 062902 (Jul 17, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1106; doi: 10.1115/1.4036960 History: Received March 02, 2017; Revised May 03, 2017

A novel and pragmatic technique has been proposed to quantify the nonequilibrium phase behavior together with physical properties of foamy oil under reservoir conditions. Experimentally, constant-composition expansion (CCE) experiments at various constant pressure decline rates are conducted to examine the nonequilibrium phase behavior of solvent–CO2–heavy oil systems. Theoretically, the amount of evolved gas is first formulated as a function of time, and then incorporated into the real gas equation to quantify the nonequilibrium phase behavior of the aforementioned systems. Meanwhile, theoretical models have been developed to determine the time-dependent compressibility and density of foamy oil. Good agreements between the calculated volume–pressure profiles and experimentally measured ones have been achieved, while both amounts of evolved gas and entrained gas as well as compressibility and density of foamy oil were determined. The time-dependent effects of entrained gas on physical properties of oleic phase were quantitatively analyzed and evaluated. A larger pressure decline rate and a lower temperature are found to result in a lower pseudo-bubblepoint pressure and a higher expansion rate of the evolved gas volume in the solvent–CO2–heavy oil systems. Apparent critical supersaturation pressure increases with either an increase in pressure decline rate or a decrease in system temperature. Physical properties of the oleic phase under nonequilibrium conditions follow the same trends as those of conventionally undersaturated oil under equilibrium conditions when pressure is higher than the pseudo-bubblepoint pressure. However, there is an abrupt increase of compressibility and decrease of density associated with pseudo-bubblepoint pressure instead of bubblepoint pressure due to the initialization of gas bubble growth. The amount of dispersed gas in the oleic phase is found to impose a dominant impact on physical properties of the foamy oil. Compared with CCE experiment at constant volume expansion rate, a rebound pressure and its corresponding effects on physical properties cannot be observed in the CCE experiments at constant pressure decline rate.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sarma, H. , and Maini, B. , 1992, “ Role of Solution Gas in Primary Production of Heavy Oils,” SPE Latin America Petroleum Engineering Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, Mar. 8–11, SPE Paper No. SPE-23631-MS.
Maini, B. B. , 1996, “ Foamy Oil Flow in Heavy Oil Production,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 35(6), pp. 21–24. [CrossRef]
Kamp, A. M. , Heny, C. , Andarcia, L. , Lago, M. , and Rodriguez, A. , 2001, “ Experimental Investigation of Foamy Oil Solution Gas Driven,” SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Porlamar, Venezuela, Mar. 12–14, SPE Paper No. SPE-69725-MS.
Maini, B. B. , Sarma, H. K. , and George, A. E. , 1993, “ Significance of Foamy-Oil Behaviour in Primary Production of Heavy Oils,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 32(9), pp. 50–54. [CrossRef]
Sheng, J. J. , Hayes, R. E. , and Maini, B. B. , 1996, “ A Dynamic Model to Simulate Foamy Oil Flow in Porous Media,” SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, CO, Oct. 6–9, SPE Paper No. SPE-36750-MS.
Bennion, D. B. , Mastmann, M. , and Moustakis, M. L. , 2003, “ A Case Study of Foamy Oil Recovery in the Patos-Marinza Reservoir, Driza Sand, Albania,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 42(3), pp. 21–28. [CrossRef]
Bjorndalen, N. , Jossy, E. , and Alvarez, J. , 2002, “ Foamy Oil Behaviour in Solvent Based Production Processes,” SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, AB, Canada, June 12–14, SPE Paper No. SPE-157905-MS.
Kumar, R. , 1999, “ Solution-Gas Drive in Heavy Oil: Gas Mobility and Kinetics of Bubble Growth,” M.Sc. thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. http://hdl.handle.net/1880/25130
Sheng, J. J. , Maini, B. B. , Hayes, R. E. , and Tortike, W. S. , 1999, “ Critical Review of Foamy Oil Flow,” Transp. Porous Media, 35(2), pp. 157–187. [CrossRef]
Laari, A. , and Turunen, I. , 2005, “ Prediction of Coalescence Properties of Gas Bubbles in a Gas–Liquid Reactor Using Persistence Time Measurements,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 83(7), pp. 881–886. [CrossRef]
Slettebø, E. S. , 2009, “ Separation of Gas From Liquids in Viscous Systems,” M.Sc. thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway http://daim.idi.ntnu.no/masteroppgaver/004/4803/masteroppgave.pdf.
Firoozabadi, A. , Ottesen, B. , and Mikkelsen, M. , 1992, “ Measurements of Supersaturation and Critical Gas Saturation,” SPE Form. Eval., 7(4), pp. 337–344. [CrossRef]
Mastmann, M. , Moustakis, M. L. , and Bennion, B. , 2001, “ Predicting Foamy Oil Recovery,” SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, CA, Mar. 26–30, SPE Paper No. SPE-68860-MS.
Bora, R. , Maini, B. B. , and Chakma, A. , 1997, “ Flow Visualization Studies of Solution Gas Drive Process in Heavy Oil Reservoirs Using a Glass Micromodel,” SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Bakersfield, CA, Feb. 10–12, SPE Paper No. SPE-64226-PA.
Goodarzi, N. N. , Bryan, J. L. , Mai, A. T. , and Kantzas, A. , 2007, “ Novel Techniques for Measuring Heavy-Oil Fluid Properties,” SPE J., 12(3), pp. 305–315. [CrossRef]
Kumar, R. , Pooladi-Darvish, M. , and Okazawa, T. , 2002, “ Effect of Depletion Rate on Gas Mobility and Solution Gas Drive in Heavy Oil,” SPE J., 7(2), pp. 213–220. [CrossRef]
Kraus, W. P. , McCaffrey, W. J. , and Boyd, G. W. , 1993, “ Pseudo-Bubble Point Model for Foamy Oils,” 44th Annual Technical Conference of the Petroleum Society of CIM, Calgary, AB, Canada, May 9–12, SPE Paper No. PETSOC-93-45.
Chen, Z. , Sun, J. , Wang, R. , and Wu, X. , 2015, “ A Pseudobubblepoint Model and Its Simulation for Foamy Oil in Porous Media,” SPE J., 20(2), pp. 239–247. [CrossRef]
Sheng, J. J. , 1997, “ Foamy Oil Flow in Porous Media,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk3/ftp04/nq21633.pdf
Sheng, J. J. , Hayes, R. E. , Maini, B. B. , and Tortike, W. S. , 1999, “ Modelling Foamy Oil Flow in Porous Media,” Transp. Porous Media, 35(2), pp. 227–258. [CrossRef]
Arora, P. , and Kovscek, A. R. , 2001, “ Mechanistic Modeling of Solution Gas Drive in Viscous Oils,” SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Porlamar, Margarita Island, Venezuela, Mar. 12–14, SPE Paper No. SPE-0601-0048-JPT.
Arora, P. , and Kovscek, A. R. , 2003, “ A Mechanistic Modeling and Experimental Study of Solution Gas Drive,” Transp. Porous Media, 51(3), pp. 237–265. [CrossRef]
Coombe, D. , and Maini, B. , 1994, “ Modeling Foamy Oil Flow,” Workshop on Foamy Oil Flow, Petroleum Recovery Institute, Calgary, AB, Canada, Apr. 27.
Luigi, A. , Saputelli, B. , Carlas, M. , Canache, P. , and Lopez, E. , 1998, “ Application of a Non-Equilibrium Reaction Model for Describing Horizontal Well Performance in Foamy Oils,” SPE International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology SPE, Calgary, AB, Canada, Nov. 1–4, Paper No. SPE-50414-MS.
Uddin, M. , 2005, “ Numerical Studies of Gas Exsolution in a Live Heavy Oil Reservoir,” SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, AB, Canada, Nov. 1–3, SPE Paper No. SPE-97739-MS.
Istchenko, C. M. , and Gates, I. D. , 2014, “ Well/Wormhole Model of Cold Heavy-Oil Production With Sand,” SPE J., 19(2), pp. 260–269. [CrossRef]
Maini, B. B. , 2001, “ Foamy-Oil Flow,” J. Pet. Technol., 53(10), pp. 54–64. [CrossRef]
Gor, G. Y. , Kuchma, A. E. , and Kuni, F. M. , 2011, “ Gas Bubble Growth Dynamics in a Supersaturated Solution: Henry’s and Sievert’s Solubility Laws,” Nucleation Theory and Applications, J. W. P. Schmelzer , ed., JINR, Dubna, Russia, pp. 213–233. [CrossRef]
Kashchiev, D. , and Firoozabadi, A. , 1993, “ Kinetics of the Initial Stage of Isothermal Gas Phase Formation,” J. Chem. Phys., 98(6), pp. 4690–4699. [CrossRef]
Shi, Y. , Li, X. , and Yang, D. , 2016, “ Nonequilibrium Phase Behavior of Alkane Solvent(s)–CO2–Heavy Oil Systems Under Reservoir Conditions,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 55(10), pp. 2860–2871. [CrossRef]
Peng, D. , and Robinson, D. B. , 1976, “ A New Two-Constant Equation of State,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 15(1), pp. 59–64. [CrossRef]
Li, H. , and Yang, D. , 2011, “ Modified α Function for the Peng–Robinson Equation of State to Improve the Vapor Pressure Prediction of Non-Hydrocarbon and Hydrocarbon Compounds,” Energy Fuels, 25(1), pp. 215–223. [CrossRef]
Li, H. , and Yang, D. , 2013, “ Phase Behaviour of C3H8/n-C4H10/Heavy-Oil Systems at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 52(1), pp. 30–40. [CrossRef]
Li, H. , Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2013, “ Enhanced Swelling Effect and Viscosity Reduction of Solvent(s)/CO2/Heavy Oil Systems,” SPE J., 18(4), pp. 695–705. [CrossRef]
Li, H. , Sun, H. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Effective Diffusion Coefficients of Gas Mixture in Heavy Oil Under Constant-Pressure Conditions,” Heat Mass Transfer, 53(5), pp. 1527–1540.
Li, X. , Li, H. , and Yang, D. , 2013, “ Determination of Multiphase Boundaries and Swelling Factors of Solvent(s)–CO2–Heavy Oil Systems at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures,” Energy Fuels, 27(3), pp. 1293–1306. [CrossRef]
Zheng, S. , Li, H. , Sun, H. , and Yang, D. , 2016, “ Determination of Diffusion Coefficient for Solvent-CO2 Mixtures in Heavy Oil With Consideration of Swelling Effect,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 55(6), pp. 1533–1549. [CrossRef]
Zheng, S. , Sun, H. , and Yang, D. , 2016, “ Coupling Heat and Mass Transfer for Determining Individual Diffusion Coefficient of a Hot C3H8-CO2 Mixture in Heavy Oil Under Reservoir Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 102, pp. 251–263. [CrossRef]
Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Determination of Individual Diffusion Coefficients of C3H8/n-C4H10/CO2/Heavy-Oil Systems at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures by Dynamic Volume Analysis,” SPE J., 22(3), pp. 799–816.
Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Experimental and Theoretical Determination of Diffusion Coefficients of CO2-Heavy Oil Systems by Coupling Heat and Mass Transfer,” ASME J. Energy Res. Technol., 139(2), p. 022901. [CrossRef]
Shi, Y. , Zheng, S. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Determination of Individual Diffusion Coefficients of Solvents-CO2-Heavy Oil Systems With Consideration of Natural Convection Induced by Swelling Effect,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 107, pp. 572–585. [CrossRef]
Li, X. , Yang, D. , and Fan, Z. , 2017, “ Vapor-Liquid Phase Boundaries and Swelling Factors of C3H8-n-C4H10-CO2-Heavy Oil Systems Under Reservoir Conditions,” Fluid Phase Equilib., 434, pp. 211–221. [CrossRef]
Chueh, P. L. , and Prausnitz, J. M. , 1967, “ Vapor-Liquid Equilibria at High Pressures: Calculation of Partial Molar Volumes in Non Polar Liquid Mixtures,” AIChE J., 13(6), pp. 1099–1107. [CrossRef]
Sheikha, H. , and Pooladi-Darvish, M. , 2009, “ The Effect of Pressure-Decline Rate and Pressure Gradient on the Behaviour of Solution-Gas Drive in Heavy Oil,” SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng., 12(3), pp. 390–398. [CrossRef]
Delale, C. F. , Hruby, J. , and Marsik, F. , 2003, “ Homogeneous Bubble Nucleation in Liquids: The Classical Theory Revisited,” J. Chem. Phys., 118(2), pp. 792–806. [CrossRef]
Chernov, A. A. , Kedrinskey, V. K. , and Pil’nik, A. A. , 2014, “ Kinetics of Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Magmatic Melt at Its Rapid Decompression,” Phys. Fluid, 26(11), p. 116602. [CrossRef]
Bories, S. , and Prat, M. , 2002, “ Isothermal Nucleation and Bubble Growth in Porous Media at Low Supersaturations,” Transport Phenomena in Porous Media II, I. Pop and D. B. Ingham , eds., Elsevier, Pergamon, Turkey, pp. 276–312. [CrossRef]
Jones, S. F. , Evans, G. M. , and Galvin, K. P. , 1999, “ Bubble Nucleation From Gas Cavities—A Review,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 80(1), pp. 27–50. [CrossRef]
Lillico, D. A. , Babchin, A. J. , Jossy, W. E. , Sawatzky, R. P. , and Yuan, J.-Y. , 2001, “ Gas Bubble Nucleation Kinetics in a Live Heavy Oil,” Colloids Surf., A, 192(1–3), pp. 25–38. [CrossRef]
Geilikman, M. B. , and Dusseault, M. B. , 1999, “ Sand Production Caused by Foamy Oil Flow,” Transp. Porous Media, 35(2), pp. 259–272. [CrossRef]
Katz, J. L. , and Blander, M. , 1973, “ Condensation and Boiling: Corrections to Homogeneous Nucleation Theory for Nonideal Gases,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 42(3), pp. 496–502. [CrossRef]
Ward, C. A. , and Levart, E. , 1984, “ Conditions for Stability of Bubble Nuclei in Solid Surfaces Contacting a Liquid-Gas Solution,” J. Appl. Phys., 56(2), pp. 491–500. [CrossRef]
Hayduk, W. , and Cheng, S. C. , 1971, “ Review of Relation Between Diffusivity and Solvent Viscosity in Diluted Liquid Solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 26(5), pp. 635–646. [CrossRef]
Shi, Y. , and Yang, D. , 2017, “ Quantification of a Single Gas Bubble Growth in Solvent(s)–CO2–Heavy Oil Systems With Consideration of Multicomponent Diffusion Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions,” ASME J. Energy Res. Technol., 139(2), p. 022908. [CrossRef]
Bora, R. , 1998, “ Cold Production of Heavy Oil—An Experimental Investigation of Foamy Oil Flow in Porous Media,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/handle/1880/25885?mode=full
Alshmakhy, A. B. , and Maini, B. B. , 2012, “ Foamy-Oil-Viscosity Measurement,” J. Can. Pet. Technol., 51(1), pp. 60–64. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of PVT experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Flowchart for matching volume–pressure profile with the proposed newly numerical method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Pressure as a function of expansion volume for (a) CO2–heavy oil systems, (b) CH4–C3H8–heavy oil systems, and (c) CH4–CO2–heavy oil systems under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Amounts of evolved gas and entrained gas in (a) CO2–heavy oil systems, (b) CH4–C3H8–heavy oil systems with pressure decline rate of 20 kPa/min, and (c) CH4–CO2–heavy oil systems with pressure decline rate 20 kPa/min at 342.7 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Compressibilities and densities of oleic phase in (a) CO2–heavy oil systems, (b) CH4–C3H8–heavy oil systems with pressure decline rate of 20 kPa/min, and (c) CH4–CO2–heavy oil systems with pressure decline rate of 20 kPa/min at 342.7 K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Pressure as a function of expansion volume for CO2–heavy oil systems at 323.4 K

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In