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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Smart Expandable Cement Additive to Achieve Better Wellbore Integrity

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Dahi Taleghani, M. Moayeri

Department of Petroleum Engineering,
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA 70803

G. Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 12, 2017; final manuscript received May 16, 2017; published online July 18, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(6), 062903 (Jul 18, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1219; doi: 10.1115/1.4036963 History: Received May 12, 2017; Revised May 16, 2017

One of the serious challenges encountered in cementing oil and gas wells is the failure of the cement sheaths and its debonding from casing or formation rock. Shrinkage of the cement during setting is identified as one of the driving factors behind these issues. Some expansive cement systems have been developed in the oil and gas industry to compensate for the shrinkage effect. All the expansive additives which have been developed so far have chemical reactions with the cement itself that would significantly impact the mechanical strength of the cement. In this paper, we present a new class of polymer-based expandable cement additive particles which are made of shape memory polymers (SMP). This class of polymers is designed to expand to the required extent when exposed to temperatures above 50–100 °C (122–212 °F) which is below the temperature of the cementing zone. It is notable that expansion occurs after placement of the cement but before its setting. The API RP 10 B-2 and 5 have been followed as standard test methods to evaluate expansion and strength of the cement slurry after utilizing the new additive. The proposed additive does not react with the water or cement content of the slurry. Mechanical evaluation tests confirm the potential benefit of this additive without any deteriorative effect on mechanical properties or setting time of the cement paste and significant impact on its mechanical properties. Hence, this additive would provide a reliable way to prevent cement channeling, debonding, and fluid migration to upper formations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Different modes of failure in the cement sheath: (a) radial cracks, (b) plastic deformation, (c) circumferential cracking, and (d) incomplete cementing

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Fig. 2

(a) SMP expansive additive before activation (temporary state) and (b) SMP expansive additive after activation (permanent state) (particles were compared with a one cent coin)

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Fig. 3

Typical thermomechanical cycle for SMP and SMP foam, figure from Ref. [39]

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Fig. 4

(a) Annular ring expansion mold and (b) expansion test, high pressure, and temperature curing chamber

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Fig. 5

Sample mold size and UCA device used to measure the elastic modulus and strength

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Fig. 6

(a) Prepared, cured sample under uniaxial compression load and (b) crushed cement sample after applied uniaxial compression load

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Fig. 7

Percentage of linear expansion graph for 24 and 96 h

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Fig. 8

Compressional wave transit time and compressive strength in time for neat slurry

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Fig. 9

Compressional wave transit time and compressive strength in time for 3% additive

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Fig. 10

Relationship between change in the compressive strength and percentage of the added SMP

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Fig. 11

Relationship between modulus of elasticity and different percentage of the added SMP

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