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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Optimization of Smart Water Chemical Composition for Carbonate Rocks Through Comparison of Active Cations Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Malek Jalilian

Institute of Petroleum Engineering,
School of Chemical Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
Tehran 1417466191, Iran
e-mail: mallek.jalilian@alumni.ut.ac.ir

Peyman Pourafshary

Department of Petroleum
and Chemical Engineering,
Sultan Qaboos University,
Muscat 123, Oman
e-mail: pourafshary@squ.edu.com

Behnam Sedaee Sola

Institute of Petroleum Engineering,
School of Chemical Engineering,
College of Engineering,
University of Tehran,
Tehran 1417466191, Iran
e-mail: sedaeesola@yahoo.com

Mosayyeb Kamari

School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,
Sahand University of Technology,
Tabriz 51368, Iran
e-mail: Mosayyeb.kamari@gmail.com

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 22, 2016; final manuscript received June 1, 2017; published online July 27, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(6), 062904 (Jul 27, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1222; doi: 10.1115/1.4037215 History: Received May 22, 2016; Revised June 01, 2017

Designing smart water (SW) by optimizing the chemical composition of injected brine is a promising low-cost technique that has been developed for both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs for several decades. In this study, the impact of SW flooding during tertiary oil recovery phase was investigated by core flooding analysis of pure limestone carbonate rocks. Increasing the sulfate ion concentration by using CaSO4 and MgSO4 of NaCl concentration and finally reducing the total salinity were the main manipulations performed to optimize SW. The main objective of this research is to compare active cations including Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the presence of sulfate ions (SO42) with regard to their efficiency in the enhancement of oil production during SW flooding of carbonate cores. The results revealed a 14.5% increase in the recovery factor by CaSO4 proving its greater effectiveness compared to MgSO4, which led to an 11.5% production enhancement. It was also realized that low-salinity water flooding (LSWF) did not lead to a significant positive effect as it contributed less than 2% in the tertiary stage.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of the suggested chemical mechanism for wettability alteration of carbonate rocks by sulfate ion [18]

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Fig. 2

Schematic of coreflooding apparatus

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Fig. 3

Oil recovery factor versus brine volume injected during secondary and tertiary recovery in test #1

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Fig. 4

Oil recovery factor versus brine volume injected during secondary and tertiary recovery in test #2

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Fig. 5

Oil recovery factor versus brine volume injected during secondary and tertiary recovery in test #3

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Fig. 6

Oil recovery factor versus brine volume injected during secondary and tertiary recovery in test #4

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Fig. 7

Oil recovery factor versus brine PV injected during secondary and tertiary recovery in tests #1–#4

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Fig. 8

The ultimate secondary recovery achieved by FW and incremental tertiary recovery by SW in tests #1–#4

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