0
Research Papers: Energy Conversion/Systems

Production Cost–Efficiency Relation for Room Air Conditioners and Its Economic and Environmental Impact

[+] Author and Article Information
Esmail M. A. Mokheimer

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
(KFUPM),
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Center of Research Excellence in Energy
Efficiency (CEEE),
King Fahd University of Petroleum
and Minerals (KFUPM),
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia;
Center of Research Excellence in Renewable
Energy (CoRe-RE),
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
P.O. Box 279,
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: esmailm@kfupm.edu.sa

Syed Hussain

Dhahran Techno-Valley (DTV),
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: syed.hussain@dtvc.com.sa

Magd DinAli Nadeem

Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: s201194130@kfupm.edu.sa

Ahmed Ali Mahmoud Abdulrahman

Mechanical Engineering Department,
College of Engineering,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and
Minerals (KFUPM),
Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: s201264040@kfupm.edu.sa

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 12, 2017; final manuscript received June 3, 2017; published online July 27, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(6), 061601 (Jul 27, 2017) (17 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1160; doi: 10.1115/1.4037206 History: Received April 12, 2017; Revised June 03, 2017

A large amount of the operating costs in a building is determined by the energy requirements of its air conditioning system. The demand for more energy efficient units desired by both manufacturers and the consumers results in a dire necessity to have air conditioning units that are more energy efficient than the existing ones. In order to achieve the abovementioned features, a tool must be designed to simulate the thermal behavior of the air conditioners. In this work, a mathematical model is developed for air conditioning units and coded into a computer program to estimate the overall performance, as indicated by the unit energy efficiency ratio (EER). The main objective is to maximize the unit EER by proposing modifications or enhancements in the existing unit and to study the economics of these modifications based on the measured terms such as the energy savings and the operating cost. Finally, the effect of the proposed design modifications on the economy and environment at the national level in Saudi Arabia is estimated and presented as an example.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sieminski, A. , 2014, “ International Energy Outlook. Energy Information Administration (EIA),” Deloitte Oil and Gas Conference, Houston, TX, Nov. 18. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/us/Documents/energy-resources/us-er-a-retrospective-look-at-the-2014-deloitte-oil-and-gas-conference-02252015.pdf
Al-Awajji, S. H. , and Alshiha, Z. M. , 2014, “ Saudi Electric Company Annual Report,” SEC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, accessed Apr. 10, 2017, https://www.se.com.sa/en-us/Pages/AnnualReports.aspx
Sanaye, S. , and Malekmohammadi, H. , 2004, “ Thermal and Economical Optimization of Air Conditioning Units With Vapor Compression Refrigeration System,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 24(13), pp. 1807–1825. [CrossRef]
Zhang, G. Q. , Wang, L. , Liu, L. , and Wang, Z. , 2004, “ Thermoeconomic Optimization of Small Size Central Air Conditioner,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 24(4), pp. 471–485. [CrossRef]
Al-Otaibi, D. , Dincer, I. , and Kalyon, M. , 2004, “ Thermoeconomic Optimization of Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 31(1), pp. 95–107. [CrossRef]
Ding, G.-L. , 2007, “ Recent Developments in Simulation Techniques for Vapour-Compression Refrigeration Systems,” Int. J. Refrig., 30(7), pp. 1119–1133. [CrossRef]
Morrison, G. L. , 2004, “ Air Conditioner Performance Rating,” Asia Pacific Economic Co-Operation Conference, Air Conditioning: The Next 5 Years (APEC), Santiago, Chile, Nov. 20–21. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237454634_AIR_CONDITIONER_PERFORMANCE_RATING
Duprez, M.-E. , Dumont, E. , and Frère, M. , 2007, “ Modelling of Reciprocating and Scroll Compressors,” Int. J. Refrig., 30(5), pp. 873–886. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y. , Halm, N. P. , Groll, E. A. , and Braun, J. E. , 2002, “ Mathematical Modeling of Scroll Compressors—Part I: Compression Process Modeling,” Int. J. Refrig., 25(6), pp. 731–750. [CrossRef]
ANSI/AHRI, 2004, “ Performance Rating of Positive Displacement Refrigerant Compressors and Compressor Units,” Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute, Arlington, VA, Standard No. 540-2015 http://www.ahrinet.org/App_Content/ahri/files/STANDARDS/AHRI/AHRI_Standard_540_I-P_and_SI_2015.pdf.
Byun, J.-S. , Lee, J. , and Choi, J.-Y. , 2007, “ Numerical Analysis of Evaporation Performance in a Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger,” Int. J. Refrig., 30(5), pp. 812–820. [CrossRef]
Domanski, P. A. , 1989, “ EVSIM: An Evaporator Simulation Model Accounting for Refrigerant and One Dimensional Air Distribution,” National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, DC, Report No. 89-4133. https://www.nist.gov/publications/evsim-evaporator-simulation-model-accounting-refrigerant-and-one-dimensional-air
Wang, C.-C. , and Chi, K.-Y. , 2000, “ Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of Plain Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchangers—Part I: New Experimental Data,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43(15), pp. 2681–2691. [CrossRef]
Wang, C.-C. , Chi, K.-Y. , and Chang, C.-J. , 2000, “ Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of Plain Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchangers—Part II: Correlation,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43(15), pp. 2693–2700. [CrossRef]
Wang, C.-C. , Jang, J.-Y. , and Chiou, N.-F. , 1999, “ A Heat Transfer and Friction Correlation for Wavy Fin and Tube Heat Exchangers,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(10), pp. 1919–1924. [CrossRef]
Wang, C.-C. , Lee, C. J. , Chang, C. T. , and Lin, S. P. , 1999, “ Heat Transfer and Friction Correlation for Compact Louvered Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchangers,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 42(11), pp. 1945–1956. [CrossRef]
Wang, C.-C. , Tao, W.-H. , and Chang, C.-J. , 1999, “ An Investigation of the Airside Performance of the Slit Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchangers,” Int. J. Refrig., 22(8), pp. 595–603. [CrossRef]
Yang, L. , and Wang, W. , 2008, “ A Generalized Correlation for the Characteristics of Adiabatic Capillary Tubes,” Int. J. Refrig., 31(2), pp. 197–203. [CrossRef]
Choi, J. , Kim, Y. , and Kim, H. Y. , 2003, “ A Generalized Correlation for Refrigerant Mass Flowrate Through Adiabatic Capillary Tubes,” Int. J. Refrig., 26(8), pp. 881–888. [CrossRef]
Zhang, C. , Ma, S. , Chen, J. , and Chen, Z. , 2006, “ Experimental Analysis of R22 and R407c Flow Through Electronic Expansion Valve,” Energy Convers. Manage., 47(5), pp. 529–544. [CrossRef]
Park, C. , Cho, H. , Lee, Y. , and Kim, Y. , 2007, “ Mass Flow Characteristics and Empirical Modeling of R22 and R410A Flowing Through Electronic Expansion Valves,” Int. J. Refrig., 30(8), pp. 1401–1407. [CrossRef]
Vakiloroaya, V. , Samali, B. , Fakhar, A. , and Pishghadam, K. , 2014, “ Thermo-Economic Optimization of Rooftop Unit's Evaporator Coil for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort,” Build. Simul., 7(4), pp. 345–359. [CrossRef]
Mogaji, T. , 2015, “ Simulation and Comparison of the Performance of Refrigerant Fluids in Single Stage Vapour Compression Refrigeration System,” Br. J. Appl. Sci. Technol., 8(6), pp. 583–594. [CrossRef]
Moran, M. J. , and Shapiro, H. N. , 1992, Fundamental of Engineering Thermodynamics, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York.
Shapiro, H. , 1995, “ Semi-Empirical Method for Modeling a Reciprocating Compressor in Refrigeration Systems,” ASHRAE Trans., 101(2), pp. 367–382.
Stoecker, W. , 1971, Proposed Procedures for Simulating the Performance of Components and Systems for Energy Calculations, 2nd ed., ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA.
Incropera, F. P. , and DeWitt, D. P. , 1996, Introduction to Heat Transfer, Wiley, New York.
Chaddock, J. B. , and Noerager, J. A. , 1966, “ Evaporation of R-12 in a Horizontal Tube With Constant Wall Heat Flux,” ASHRAE Trans., 72, pp. 99–103.
Bourdouxhe, J. P. H. , Grodent, M. , and Lebrun, J. J. , 1995, “ A Toolkit for Primary HVAC System Energy Calculation [Computer Program],” American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.
Reichler, M. , 1999, “ Modeling of Rooftop Packaged Air Conditioning Equipment,” Masters thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. https://minds.wisconsin.edu/bitstream/handle/1793/7672/Thesis.pdf?sequence=1
Braun, J. , Klein, S. , and Mitchell, J. , 1989, “ Effectiveness Models for Cooling Towers and Cooling Coils,” ASHRAE Trans., 95(2), pp. 164–174.
Traviss, D. , Rohsenow, W. , and Baron, A. , 1973, “ Forced-Convection Condensation Inside Tubes: A Heat Transfer Equation for Condenser Design,” ASHRAE Trans, 79(1), pp. 157–165.
Crane, 1988, Flow of Fluids Thorough Valves, Fittings, and Pipe, Crane Company, Stamford, CT.
Geary, D. F. , 1975, “ Return Bend Pressure Drop in Refrigeration Systems,” ASHRAE Trans., 81(1), pp. 250–264.
ASHRAE Handbook, 1997, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
Buckingham, E. , 1914, “ On Physically Similar Systems; Illustrations of the Use of Dimensional Equations,” Phys. Rev., 4(4), p. 345. [CrossRef]
Kuehl, S. , and Goldschmidt, V. , 1990, “ Steady Flows of R-22 Through Capillary Tubes, Test Data,” Winter Meeting, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA, Feb. 10–14, pp. 719–728.
Ministry of Economy and Planning, Central Department of Statistics and Information, 2004, “ Detailed Results Population and Housing Census 1425 H,” Ministry of Economy and Planning, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Ministry of Economy and Planning, Central Department of Statistics and Information, 2010, “ Detailed Results Population and Housing Census 1435 H,” Ministry of Economy and Planning, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Mokheimer, E. M. , 2012, “ On the Need for Energy Labeling for Villa Air Conditioners in Saudi Arabia and Its Economic and Environmental Impact,” Energy Environ., 23(1), pp. 51–73. [CrossRef]
ENS, 2017, “ Coal Equivalent,” European Nuclear Society, Brussels, Belgium, accessed June 1, 2017, https://www.euronuclear.org/info/encyclopedia/coalequivalent.htm
WNA, 2016, “ Heat Values of Various Fuels,” World Nuclear Association, London, accessed June 1, 2017, http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/facts-and-figures/heat-values-of-various-fuels.aspx
Hong, B. D. , and Slatick, E. R. , 1994, “ Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal,” Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, accessed June 1, 2017, https://www.eia.gov
Mokheimer, E. M. A. , and Eid, A. , 2011, “ Determinants of Consumers' Demand on Energy-Efficient Air Conditioners in Saudi Arabia,” Energy Environ., 22(6), pp. 711–722. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Electricity generation over a decade in Saudi Arabia [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a typical air conditioner

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A schematic representation of the condenser

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Flow chart of the simulation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Temperature-entropy (T-s) diagram for an actual vapor compression cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of condenser face area on the AC performance (package unit I)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of evaporator face area on the AC performance (package unit I)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of condenser volume flow rate (CFM) on the AC performance (package unit I)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of evaporator volume flow rate (CFM) on the AC performance (package unit I)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of compressor EER on the AC performance (package unit I)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of condenser face area on AC performance (split unit II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effect of evaporator face area on AC performance (split unit II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effect of condenser volume flow rate on the AC performance (split unit II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Effect of evaporator volume flow rate on the AC performance (split unit II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Effect of compressor EER on AC performance (split unit II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Effect of condenser face area on AC performance (window unit III)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Effect of evaporator face area on AC performance (window unit III)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Effect of condenser volume flow rate on AC performance (window unit III)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Effect of evaporator volume flow rate on AC performance (window unit III)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Effect of compressor EER on AC performance (window unit III)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Cost curve relating the increase in cost to increase in EER (package unit I)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Cost curve relating to increase in cost to increase in EER (split unit II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Cost curve relating the increase in cost to increase in EER (window unit III)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In