Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

An Investigation of Wind Farm Power Production for Various Atmospheric Boundary Layer Heights

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Al Sam

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: ali.al_sam@energy.lth.se

R. Szasz

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: robert-zoltan.szasz@energy.lth.se

J. Revstedt

Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O. Box 118,
Lund SE-221 00, Sweden
e-mail: johan.revstedt@energy.lth.se

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 2, 2016; final manuscript received June 19, 2017; published online August 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ryo Amano.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(5), 051216 (Aug 16, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1437; doi: 10.1115/1.4037311 History: Received November 02, 2016; Revised June 19, 2017

The dependency of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) characteristics on the ABL’s height is investigated by using large eddy simulations (LES). The impacts of ABL’s height on the wind turbine (WT) power production are also investigated by simulating two subsequent wind turbines using the actuator line method (ALM). The results show that, for the same driving pressure forces and aerodynamic roughness height, the wind velocity is higher at deeper ABL, while the wind shear and the wind veer are not affected by the depth. Moreover, the turbulence intensity, kinetic energy, and kinematic shear stress increase with the ABL’s height. Higher power production and power coefficient are obtained from turbines operating at deeper ABL.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Time–space average of (a) the ratio of the SGS to total (tot) turbulent kinetic energy of the three cases and (b) the filtered, SGS and total turbulent kinematic shear stresses normalized by the total kinematic shear stress at the surface for the 400 m ABL case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Time–space average of: (a) the horizontal wind velocity components normalized by the geostrophic velocity magnitude. The horizontal lines indicate the blade upper and lower position of the studied wind turbines. (b) Same as (a) but the height is normalized by the initial ABL height of the corresponding case. (c) The flow direction.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Time- and space-averaged of turbulent quantities: (a) the normalized total (filtered plus SGS) turbulent kinetic energy, (b) the turbulent intensity, and (c) the total kinematic shear stress

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Fig. 4

Turbulence quadrants analysis of the flow at a horizontal plane at the turbine hub height: (a) 400 m, (b) 600 m, and (c) 800 m

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Fig. 6

The temporal autocorrelation of the velocity components of probe points

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Fig. 7

Instantaneous normalized velocity of the plane taken parallel to the ground and at the turbine hub height: the cases are (a) 400 m, (b) 600 m, and (c) 800 m from the top to the bottom, respectively

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Fig. 8

Time series of the turbines, averaged for the two turbines: (a) the power production and (b) the normalized power production

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Fig. 5

The pdf of the flow at the turbine hub height

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Fig. 9

Time average of (a) the axial force and (b) the tangential force averaged for the six blades of the two turbines



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