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Research Papers: Alternative Energy Sources

A Study of Noise Generation on the E387, S823, NACA 0012, and NACA 4412 Airfoils for Use on Small-Scale Wind Turbines in the Urban Environment

[+] Author and Article Information
Kenneth W. Van Treuren

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Baylor University,
One Bear Place #97356,
Waco, TX 76798-7356
e-mail: Kenneth_Van_Treuren@baylor.edu

Andrew W. Hays

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Baylor University,
One Bear Place #97356,
Waco, TX 76798-7356

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 16, 2016; final manuscript received June 15, 2017; published online September 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Ryo Amano.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(5), 051217 (Sep 18, 2017) (14 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1512; doi: 10.1115/1.4037310 History: Received December 16, 2016; Revised June 15, 2017

Four airfoils typical to small-scale wind turbines were studied for noise generation: Eppler 387, NREL S823, NACA 0012, and NACA 4412. Wind tunnel sound pressure level (SPL) data were collected directly downstream of the airfoil for angles of attack from −10 deg to 25 deg and for Reynolds numbers from 50,000 to 200,000. Vertical and horizontal wake traverses define the extent of the noise generated. The data were analyzed by frequency and compared with a noise prediction from NREL AirFoil Noise (NAFNoise). The noise trends found can be applied to improve other airfoil selection when designing small-scale wind turbines.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Eppler 387 coefficient of (a) lift and (b) drag at a Reynolds number of 100,000 [35]

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Fig. 2

S823 airfoil data comparison for a Reynolds number of 100,000 [35]

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Fig. 3

Eppler 387 experimental data L/D curve at multiple Reynolds numbers [36]

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Fig. 4

Dimensions of turbine and wind tunnel test section [29]

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Fig. 5

Flow conditions producing airfoil blade self-noise [39]

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Fig. 6

Experimental wind tunnel setup

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Fig. 7

Brüel and Kjaer 1/4 in microphone and G-4 2270 frequency analyzer

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Fig. 13

NREL S823 noise versus angle of attack

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Fig. 14

NREL S823 noise versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 15

Eppler 387 noise versus angle of attack

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Fig. 16

Eppler 387 noise versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 17

NACA 4412 noise versus angle of attack

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Fig. 18

NACA 4412 noise versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 19

NACA 0012 noise versus angle of attack

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Fig. 20

NACA 0012 noise versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 21

NREL S823 wake shape

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Fig. 22

NACA 4412 wake shape at Re = 50,000

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Fig. 23

NACA 4412 wake shape at Re = 100,000

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Fig. 24

NACA 4412 and NREL S823 wake shape at Re = 100,000

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Fig. 25

NAFNoise input file

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Fig. 26

NAFNoise output file

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Fig. 27

NAFNoise and experimental comparison for the NREL S823 at 15 deg AOA and Re = 200,000

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