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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Implementation of Energy Efficiency Strategies in Cooling Towers—A Techno-Economic Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. Al-Hadban

Energy and Building Research Center,
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR),
Safat 13109, Kuwait
e-mail: yhadban@kisr.edu.kw

K. J. Sreekanth

Energy and Building Research Center,
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR),
Safat 13109, Kuwait
e-mail: sreekanthkj@kisr.edu.kw

H. Al-Taqi

Energy and Building Research Center,
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR),
Safat 13109, Kuwait
e-mail: kisrenergy@gmail.com

R. Alasseri

Energy and Building Research Center,
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR),
Safat 13109, Kuwait
e-mail: rasseri@kisr.edu.kw

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 31, 2016; final manuscript received June 7, 2017; published online August 16, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Luis Serra.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(1), 012001 (Aug 16, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1313; doi: 10.1115/1.4037365 History: Received July 31, 2016; Revised June 07, 2017

This paper depicts the results of a detailed energy audit, analysis, and implementation of energy efficient operations and maintenance strategies in a large commercial mall in Kuwait. Initially, the cooling towers (CTs) operated only at high speed, and on a typical summer day, nearly one-fourth of the make-up water was used for self-cooling of air. The study based on measured data and analysis, for a period of one year, revealed that the use of variable frequency drive (VFD) could reduce the water wastage for self-cooling of air by as much as 75% and overall water consumption by 18.6% while keeping the cooling system performance at the design level. An optimization model was developed, suitable exclusively for arid climatic conditions. Implementation of various energy efficient operation and maintenance strategies (EEO&MS) with ventilation and air-conditioning (VAC), and lighting systems obtained an overall reduction of 9879 MWh/y, equivalent to a percentage reduction of 11.7% in the annual energy consumption and a 345 kW in peak power demand. The study estimated an economical benefit of 19,958 KD/y for the owners and to the Ministry of Electricity and Water, in addition to a considerable environmental benefit of deduction in CO2 emissions by 6990 t/y.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Baseline power demand profiles for the mall

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of cooling production system at the mall

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Fig. 3

Ambient air conditions on a particular day

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Fig. 4

Make-up water consumption along with the water used for self-cooling of the air

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Fig. 5

Cooling water supply temperature and approach during peak hours

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Fig. 6

Proposed airflow with different “c” values

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Fig. 7

Water for self-cooling of air original and proposed

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Fig. 8

Water flow diagram

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Fig. 9

Power demand patterns before and after implementing TDC for AHUs

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Fig. 10

Actual and expected reduction in power demand by implementing TDC

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Fig. 11

Impact of TDC in power demand patterns of the plant room

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Fig. 12

Hourly profiles of space temperature in public area

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Fig. 13

Average chiller loading

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Fig. 14

Average chilled water supply temperature

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