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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

In-Cylinder Flow Evolution Using Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry in an Internal Combustion Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Avinash Kumar Agarwal

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akag@iitk.ac.in

Suresh Gadekar

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: srshgdkr@gmail.com

Akhilendra Pratap Singh

Engine Research Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,
Kanpur 208016, India
e-mail: akhips@iitk.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 28, 2017; final manuscript received August 7, 2017; published online September 12, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(1), 012207 (Sep 12, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1185; doi: 10.1115/1.4037686 History: Received April 28, 2017; Revised August 07, 2017

In-cylinder flows in internal combustion (IC) engines have always been a focus of study in order to gain better understanding of fuel–air mixing process and combustion optimization. Different conventional experimental techniques such as hot wire anemometry (HWA), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and numerical simulations have been grossly inadequate for complete understanding of the complex 3D flows inside the engine cylinder. In this experimental study, tomographic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) was applied in a four-valve, single-cylinder optical research engine, with an objective of investigating the in-cylinder flow evolution during intake and compression strokes in an engine cycle. In-cylinder flow seeded with ultra-fine graphite particles was illuminated by a high energy, high frequency Nd:YLF laser. The motion of these tracer particles was captured using two cameras from different viewing angles. These two-directional projections of flowfield were used to reconstruct the 3D flowfield of the measurement volume (36 × 25 × 8 mm3), using multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) algorithm. Captured images of 50 consecutive engine cycles were ensemble averaged to analyze the in-cylinder flow evolution. Results indicated that the in-cylinder flows are dependent on the piston position and spatial location inside the engine cylinder. The randomness of air-flow fields during the intake stroke was very high, which became more homogeneous during the compression stroke. The flows were found to be highly dependent on Z plane location inside the engine. During the intake stroke, flows were highly turbulent throughout the engine cylinder, and velocities vectors were observed in all directions. However, during the compression stroke, flow velocities were higher near the injector, and they reduced closer to the valves. Absolute velocity during compression stroke was mainly contributed by the out of plane velocity (Vz) component.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup for TPIV investigations in a single cylinder optical research engine

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Fig. 2

Coordinate system, camera viewing directions, and port locations

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Fig. 3

Area of interest for in-cylinder flow characterization

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Fig. 4

Flow evolution during the intake stroke at 1200 rpm, obtained using TPIV at (a-i, a-ii) 320-deg CA, (b-i, b-ii) 290-deg CA, (c-i, c-ii) 240-deg CA, and (d-i, d-ii) 190-deg CA: (a-i) 3D view of flowfield at 320-deg CA, (a-ii) 2D plane at z = 0 at 320-deg CA, (b-i) 3D view of the flowfield at 290-deg CA, (b-ii) 2D plane at z = 0 at 290-deg CA, (c-i) 3D view of the flowfield at 240-deg CA, (c-ii) 2D plane at z = 0 at 240-deg CA, (d-i) 3-D view of the flowfield at 190-deg CA, and (d-ii) 2D plane at z = 0 at 190-deg CA

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Fig. 5

Flow evolution during compression stroke at 1200 rpm, obtained using TPIV at (a-i, a-ii) 140-deg CA, (b-i, b-ii) 90-deg CA, and (c-i, c-ii) 40-deg CA: (a-i) 3D view of flowfield at 140-deg CA, (a-ii) 2D plane at z = 0 at 140-deg CA, (b-i) 3D view of the flowfield at 90-deg CA, (b-ii) 2D plane at z = 0 at 90-deg CA, (c-i) 3D view of the flowfield at 40-deg CA, and (c-ii) 2D plane at z = 0 at 40-deg CA

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Fig. 6

Z-directional variations in absolute velocity at 270-deg CA at 1200 rpm, obtained using TPIV at (a) z = − 4 mm, (b) z = −2 mm, (c) z = 2 mm, and (d) z = 4 mm

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Fig. 7

Z-directional variations in absolute velocity at 90-deg CA at 1200 rpm, obtained using TPIV at (a) z = −4 mm, (b) z = −2 mm, (c) z = 2 mm, and (d) z = 4 mm

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Fig. 8

Absolute velocity and its components at z = 0 mm 270-deg CA at 1200 rpm, for injector plane obtained using TPIV: (a) absolute velocity, (b) Vx component, (c) Vy component, and (d) Vz component

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Fig. 9

Absolute velocity and its component at z = 0 mm, 90-deg CA at 1200 rpm, for injector plane obtained using TPIV: (a) absolute velocity, (b) Vx component, (c) Vy component, and (d) Vz component

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Fig. 10

Average TKE and average velocity profile from 300-deg CA to 60-deg CA

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