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Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Thermodynamic Properties of Pure and Mixed Thermal Plasmas Over a Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

[+] Author and Article Information
Omid Askari

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Mississippi State University,
Starkville, MS 39762

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 10, 2017; final manuscript received August 11, 2017; published online September 28, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(3), 032202 (Sep 28, 2017) (18 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1349; doi: 10.1115/1.4037688 History: Received July 10, 2017; Revised August 11, 2017

Chemical composition and thermodynamics properties of different thermal plasmas are calculated in a wide range of temperatures (300–100,000 K) and pressures (10−6–100 atm). The calculation is performed in dissociation and ionization temperature ranges using statistical thermodynamic modeling. The thermodynamic properties considered in this study are enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio, speed of sound, mean molar mass, and degree of ionization. The calculations have been done for seven pure plasmas such as hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, and argon. In this study, the Debye–Huckel cutoff criterion in conjunction with the Griem’s self-consistent model is applied for terminating the electronic partition function series and to calculate the reduction of the ionization potential. The Rydberg and Ritz extrapolation laws have been used for energy levels which are not observed in tabulated data. Two different methods called complete chemical equilibrium and progressive methods are presented to find the composition of available species. The calculated pure plasma properties are then presented as functions of temperature and pressure, in terms of a new set of thermodynamically self-consistent correlations for efficient use in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The results have been shown excellent agreement with literature. The results from pure plasmas as a reliable reference source in conjunction with an alternative method are then used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of any arbitrary plasma mixtures (mixed plasmas) having elemental atoms of H, He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar in their chemical structure.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Solution procedure flowchart

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Fig. 2

Comparisons of the selected species mole fraction of air plasma obtained with complete equilibrium (dashed line) and those obtained by Gilmore (◻) [1] and Hilsenrath and Klein (ο) [7] at atmospheric pressure

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Fig. 3

Sketch of the step-by-step method to compute the plasma composition

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Fig. 4

(a) Mean molar mass and (b) molar mass ratio of helium plasma at three different pressures of 10−6, 1, and 100 atm

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Fig. 5

Comparison of mole fractions of neon plasma at three different pressures of (a) 10−6 atm, (b) 1 atm, and (c) 100 atm between complete equilibrium (solid line) and step-by-step (dashed line) methods

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Fig. 6

Comparison of specific enthalpy and specific heat at constant pressure computed using the self-consistent method (solid line) and the ground state method (dashed line), for different species (C, C+, C+2, and C+3) in carbon plasma at pressure of 10−6 atm

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Fig. 7

Comparison of values of the equilibrium specific heat at constant pressure between the self-consistent method (solid line) and the ground state method (dashed line), for carbon plasma at three different pressures of 10−6, 1, and 100 atm

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Fig. 8

Comparison of (a) specific heat at constant pressure, (b) specific heat ratio, and (c) speed of sound between the equilibrium and frozen cases for oxygen plasma at three different pressures of 10−6, 1, and 100 atm. The bullet points (O) in (a) show the calculated data by Colombo et al. [39].

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Fig. 9

Ideal gas ratio for selected pure plasmas at three different pressures and a wide range of temperatures

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Fig. 10

Comparison of (a) specific enthalpy, (b) specific entropy, and (c) specific heat at constant pressure obtained with the complete equilibrium (solid line), the step-by-step (dashed line) methods, and Colombo et al. [39] (square bullet points) for argon plasma at three different pressures of 10−6, 1, and 100 atm

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Fig. 11

Comparison of (a) specific heat at constant pressure and (b) mean molar mass of nitrogen plasma between exact calculated data (solid line) and fitted data (bullet points) for pressures of 10−6, 1, and 100 atm

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Fig. 12

Comparisons of (a) specific heats at constant pressure, (b) specific enthalpy, and (c) specific entropy of water plasma obtained with exact method (solid line) and alternative method (dashed line) at different pressures

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Fig. 13

Comparisons of specific heats at constant pressure of air plasma mixture obtained through present study with exact method (solid line), alternative method (dashed line), and those obtained by Capitelli and coworkers (ο) [12], Hansen (×) [5], Cressault et al. (◻) [51], and Bottin (+) [52] for three different pressures: (a) 10−2, (b) 1, and (c) 100 atm

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