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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Study and Use of Geopolymer Mixtures for Oil and Gas Well Cementing Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Saeed Salehi, C. Ezeakacha, Fatemeh K. Saleh

Mewbourne School of Petroleum
and Geological Engineering,
University of Oklahoma,
Norman, OK 73069

Mohammad Jamal Khattak

Civil Engineering Department,
University of Louisiana,
Lafayette, LA 70504

Nasir Ali

Petroleum Engineering Department,
University of Louisiana,
Lafayette, LA 70504

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 16, 2017; final manuscript received July 24, 2017; published online September 12, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(1), 012908 (Sep 12, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1290; doi: 10.1115/1.4037713 History: Received June 16, 2017; Revised July 24, 2017

The study here presents laboratory testing results of Class F fly ash geopolymer for oil well cementing applications. The challenge reported in literature for the short thickening time of geopolymer ash has been overcome in this study, where more than 5 h of the thickening time is achievable. API Class H Portland cement used a controller on all the tests conducted in this work. Tests conducted in this research include unconfined compressive strength (UCS), shear bond strength, thickening time, shrinkage, free water, and cyclic and durability tests. Results indicate temperature as a crucial factor affecting the thickening time of geopolymer mix slurry. UCS testing indicates considerably higher compressive strength after one and fourteen days of curing for geopolymer mixtures. This indicates gaining strength with time for geopolymer mixture, where time retrogression effects are observed for Portland cements. Results also indicate higher shear bond strength for geopolymer mix that can better tolerate debonding issues. Additionally, more ductile material behavior and higher fracture toughness were observed for optimum geopolymer mixes. Tests also show applicability of these materials for deviated wells as a zero free water test was observed.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Dissolution and reaction process of geopolymer binder [36]

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Fig. 2

Shear bond strength setup (left) and casing pipes used for shear bond strength tests (with and without mill varnish)

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Fig. 3

(a) Shrinkage assembly and (b) sample ready for measurement

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Fig. 4

The HPHT Consistometer used in the experiments

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Fig. 5

(a) Effect of molarity of alkaline on fly ash slurry UCS and (b) the effect of silicates to hydroxide ratio on UCS

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Fig. 6

Comparison of UCS for geopolymer samples with API Class H Portland cement in 14 days curing time

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Fig. 7

UCS comparison at different curing temperatures

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Fig. 8

The thickening time test results of the slurry at 200 °F with and without addition of retarder/plasticizer

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Fig. 9

Gelling around paddle for slurries tested at high temperature without addition of superplasticizer (left), and sample at end of testing (right)

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Fig. 10

The thickening time comparison for slurries at different temperatures

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Fig. 11

The thickening time results for the comparison of the base mix, and the mix with the addition of superplasticizer and retarder

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Fig. 12

(a) SEM image of API Class H cement slurry (left) and (b) image of fly ash geopolymer mix (right)

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Fig. 13

Shrinkage results comparison for API Class H and fly ash sample for 10 days (150 °F and 200 °F)

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Fig. 14

Shear stress–displacement shear load for fly ash geopolymer, compared with API Class H cement

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Fig. 15

Contamination test results of cement and geopolymer

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Fig. 16

Detailed view of the free fluid test at 45 deg inclination (left: Portland cement; right: geopolymer)

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Fig. 17

Fly ash geopolymer cured at 150 °F and 3000 psi divided into five unequal portions

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Fig. 18

The thickening time test results for mixture at 150 °F

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Fig. 19

The thickening time test results for mixture at 200 °F

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Fig. 20

The thickening time test results for a mixture at 250 °F with no retarder

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Fig. 21

The thickening time test results for a mixture at 250 °F with retarder

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