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Research Papers: Oil/Gas Reservoirs

Numerical Determination
of Critical Condensate Saturation in Gas Condensate Reservoirs

[+] Author and Article Information
Yang Yi

School of Petroleum Engineering,
Yangtze University,
Wuhan 430100, Hubei, China;
Key Laboratory of Exploration Technologies for
Oil and Gas Resources,
Yangtze University,
Ministry of Education,
Wuhan 430100, Hubei, China
e-mail: yiyangtry@163.com

Juhua Li

School of Petroleum Engineering,
Yangtze University,
Wuhan 430100, Hubei, China;
Key Laboratory of Exploration Technologies for
Oil and Gas Resources,
Yangtze University,
Ministry of Education,
Wuhan 430100, Hubei, China
e-mail: Lucyli7509@163.com

Lei Ji

School of Petroleum Engineering,
Yangtze University,
Wuhan 430100, Hubei, China;
Key Laboratory of Exploration Technologies for
Oil and Gas Resources,
Yangtze University,
Ministry of Education,
Wuhan 430100, Hubei, China
e-mail: 570256818@qq.com

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 25, 2017; final manuscript received August 29, 2017; published online September 18, 2017. Assoc. Editor: John Killough.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 139(6), 062801 (Sep 18, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4037812 History: Received April 25, 2017; Revised August 29, 2017

Critical condensate saturation, Scc, is a key parameter for the evaluation of well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs. We propose a new method to determine Scc by performing three-phase flow simulations with three-dimensional (3D) pore network model. First, we establish a network model with random fractal methodology. Second, based on the condensation model in the literature of Li and Firoozabadi, we develop a modified condensation model to describe the condensation phenomenon of gas with connate water in the porous medium. The numerical model is verified by experimental measurements in the literature. Then, we investigate the influence of different factors on the critical condensate saturation, including micro pore structure (pore radius and fractal dimension), condensate gas/oil interfacial tension (IFT), and flow rate at different irreducible water saturation, Swi. The simulation results show that Scc decreases with increasing of average pore radius, but increases with increasing of fractal dimension. In the case of the same gas/oil interfacial tension, the higher the connate water saturation, the higher the critical condensate saturation. There is a critical gas/oil interfacial tension, below the critical value, the critical condensate saturation increases drastically with increasing of interfacial tension while it keeps almost unchanged when the interfacial tension is above the critical value. The critical condensate saturation decreases with increasing in the gas flow rate. High capillary number results in low critical condensate saturation. Reasonable increase in producing pressure drop can effectively improve the flow capacity of condensate oil.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Condensation process in vertical pore-scale network with connate water. Grey represents water, and black denotes condensate.

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Fig. 2

Flow chart for simulating the initial water saturation

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Fig. 3

Determination of the pore numbers in network model of the rock sample

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Fig. 4

Deviation between the real capillary pressures and those calculated by network models using random seeds

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Fig. 5

Three-dimensional microscopic network models of rock sample

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Fig. 6

Schematic illustration of condensate oil saturation distribution in the microscopic network model (So = 0.5%, 2.68%, 7.13%)

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Fig. 7

Probability density distribution of the gas condensate volume

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Fig. 8

Effect of pore structure on Scc: (a) average pore radius effect, (b) average throat radius effect, and (c) fractal dimension effect

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Fig. 9

Effect of gas/oil IFT on Scc

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Fig. 10

Effect of gas rate on Scc

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Fig. 11

Effect of capillary number on Scc

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Fig. 12

Mechanical equilibrium schematic of condensate slug in vertical tube (θA > θR)

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Fig. 13

Mechanical equilibrium schematic of condensate slug in horizontal tube (θA > θR)

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