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Research Papers: Energy From Biomass

Hydrogen Chloride Release From Combustion of Corn Straw in a Fixed Bed

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaohan Ren

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China;
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
Northeastern University,
Boston, MA 02115

Xiaoxiao Meng, Rui Sun

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China

Aidin Panahi, Emad Rokni, Yiannis A. Levendis

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
Northeastern University,
Boston, MA 02115

1Corresponding authors.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 5, 2017; final manuscript received October 17, 2017; published online November 14, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(5), 051801 (Nov 14, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1535; doi: 10.1115/1.4038313 History: Received October 05, 2017; Revised October 17, 2017

Chlorine plays an important role in the slagging and corrosion of boilers that burn high-chlorine content biomass. This research investigated the emissions of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas from combustion of biomass in a fixed bed, as functions of the mass air flow rate through the bed and of the moisture content of the fuel. The biomass burned was corn straw, either raw or torrefied. Results showed that increasing the air flow rate through the bed increased the release of HCl gas, as a result of enhanced combustion intensity and associated enhanced heat release rates. When the airflow through the bed was increased by a factor of six, the amount of fuel-bound chlorine converted to HCl nearly tripled. Upon completion of combustion, most of the chlorine remained in the biomass ashes, with the exception of the highest air flow case where the fraction of chlorine released in HCl equaled that captured in the ashes. HCl emissions from torrefied biomass were found to be lower than those from raw biomass. Finally, drying the biomass proved to be beneficial in drastically curtailing the generation of HCl gas.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the electrically heated horizontal muffle furnace used for the torrefaction of corn straw

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the fixed bed furnace for combustion of biomass samples

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Fig. 3

Bed temperature history versus time at different heights from the grate. Air mass fluxes increased by a factor of six in the displayed plots from (a) q = 0.18 kg/m2 s to (e) q = 1.18 kg/m2 s: (a) temperature at different heights at q = 0.18 kg/m2 s, (b) temperature at different heights at q = 0.35 kg/m2 s, (c) temperature at different heights at q = 0.53 kg/m2 s, (d) temperature at different heights at q = 0.88 kg/m2 s, (e) temperature at different heights at q = 1.18 kg/m2 s.

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Fig. 4

Ignition front propagation velocity at different bed positions and different air fluxes through the bed

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Fig. 5

HCl mass emissions (μg/unit gram corn straw) at different mass air fluxes: (a)–(e) raw biomass, (f) torrefied biomass burned with the highest air mass flux in these experiments: (a) HCI mass emissions at q = 0.18 kg/m2 s, (b) HCI mass emissions at q = 0.35 kg/m2 s, (c) HCI mass emissions at q = 0.53 kg/m2 s, (d) HCI mass emissions at q = 0.88 kg/m2 s, (e) HCI mass emissions at q = 1.18 kg/m2 s, and (f) HCI mass emissions at q = 1.18 kg/m2 s

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Fig. 6

(a) Integrated HCl mass emissions (mg/gram corn straw) and (b) Cl (%) conversion to HCl during corn straw combustion in a fixed bed furnace, both versus mass flux. Note: 1.18-T means the condition of torrefied corn straw combustion at q = 1.18 kg/m2s.

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Fig. 7

HCl mass emissions during corn straw of different moisture content combustion at mass air flow of 0.53 kg/m2 s

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Fig. 8

(a) Integrated HCl mass emissions (mg/gram corn straw) and (b) Cl (%) conversion to HCl during corn straw combustion of different moisture contents

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