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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Performance Analysis and Detailed Experimental Results of the First Liquid Air Energy Storage Plant in the World

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Sciacovelli, D. Smith, M. E. Navarro, A. Vecchi, X. Peng, Y. Li, J. Radcliffe, Y. Ding

Birmingham Centre for Energy Storage,
School of Chemical Engineering,
University of Birmingham,
Birmingham B15 2TT, UK

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 26, 2017; final manuscript received October 30, 2017; published online November 28, 2017. Assoc. Editor: George Tsatsaronis.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(2), 020908 (Nov 28, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4038378 History: Received January 26, 2017; Revised October 30, 2017

Liquid air energy storage (LAES) is a technology for bulk electricity storage in the form of liquid air with power output potentially above 10 MW and storage capacity of 100 s MWh. In this paper, we address the performance of LAES and the experimental evidences gathered through the first LAES pilot plant in the world developed by Highview power storage at Slough (London) and currently installed at the University of Birmingham (UK). We developed a numerical model of LAES plant and carried out an experimental campaign to gather new results which show the LAES operating principles, the reliability of the technology, the startup/shut down performance, and the influence of operational parameters. In summary, this work (a) contributes to the advancement of thermomechanical storage systems, (b) provides new experimental evidences and results for LAES technology, and (c) highlights the crucial aspects to necessarily improve the performance of LAES.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison of for large scale energy storage technologies [1114]. PHS: pumped hydroelectric storage; CAES: compressed air energy storage; Li ion: lithium ion batteries; NaS: sodium–sulfur batteries; VRB: vanadium redox flow battery; and LAES: liquid air energy storage.

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Fig. 2

Schematic of liquid air energy storage system

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Fig. 3

Thermodynamic cycles for the charging (left) and discharging (right) processes

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Fig. 9

Predicted theoretical round trip efficiency for the LAES pilot plant

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Fig. 8

Schematic of the HGCS

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Fig. 7

Liquid air energy storage pilot plant process flow diagram for discharging process

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Fig. 6

Liquid air energy storage pilot plant process flow diagram for charging process

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Fig. 5

Liquid air energy storage pilot plant at the University of Birmingham, School of Chemical Engineering, UK

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Fig. 4

Predicted theoretical round trip efficiency for the LAES

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Fig. 10

Power output of LAES pilot plant power during discharge trial. The dashed lines identify the beginning of the initial start up and final shutdown of the plant.

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Fig. 11

(Left) Influence of turbine inlet temperature on power output of LAES pilot plant. (Right) Power output versus mass flow rate of the LAES pilot plant.

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Fig. 12

(Left) Temperature evolution in the high grade cold storage during LAES pilot plant operation. (Right) Effect of cold recycled.

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