0
Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Biodiesel Production From Waste Palm Oil Using Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Derived Novel Carbon Acid Catalyst

[+] Author and Article Information
P. G. I. Thushari

School of Bio-Chemical Engineering
and Technology,
Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology,
Thammasat University,
Pathum 12121, Thani, Thailand
e-mail: pgi.thushari@gmail.com

S. Babel

School of Bio-Chemical Engineering
and Technology,
Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology,
Thammasat University,
Pathum 12121, Thani, Thailand
e-mail: sandhya@siit.tu.ac.th

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 9, 2017; final manuscript received November 2, 2017; published online November 28, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Stephen A. Ciatti.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(3), 032204 (Nov 28, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1061; doi: 10.1115/1.4038380 History: Received February 09, 2017; Revised November 02, 2017

Production of biodiesel from waste palm oil (WPO) can provide alternative energy and at the same time reduce the problems created by disposal of WPO. In this study, a novel, inexpensive, and environmental benign carbon acid catalyst is prepared by direct in situ concentrated H2SO4 impregnation of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB) powder and employed for biodiesel production using WPO. The structure and the physiochemical properties of the prepared catalyst (PEFB-DS-SO3H) are analyzed by acid-base back titration data, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-EDS), SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and using N2 adsorption and desorption isotherm data. It is observed that the catalyst has a unique amorphous structure with total acid density of 5.40 mmolg−1, surface area of 5.5 m2g−1, and 0.31 cm3g−1 pore volume. In addition, FT-IR, XPS, and EDS results confirm a successful sulfonation during the catalyst preparation. It is found that fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield increases with increasing methanol:oil (molar ratio) and reaction time up to an optimum value. The highest biodiesel yield of 91% is reported under reaction conditions of 5 wt % catalyst, 14:1 methanol: oil (molar ratio), at 65–70 °C after 14 h in an open reflux system. Results show that the catalyst can be reused for four consecutive cycles without significant loss of catalytic activity. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel are compatible with the international fuel standards for biodiesel.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Catalysts , Biodiesel , Carbon
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Cubio, G. M. , Capareda, S. C. , and Alagao, F. B. , 2014, “ Real-Time Analysis of Engine Power, Thermal Efficiency, and Emission Characteristics Using Refined and Transesterified Waste Vegetable Oil,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(3), p. 032201. [CrossRef]
Gopal Gupta, J. , Kumar Agarwal, A. , and Aggarwal, S. K. , 2015, “ Particulate Emissions From Karanja Biodiesel Fueled Turbocharged CRDI Sports Utility Vehicle Engine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 137(6), p. 064503. [CrossRef]
Magara-Gomez, K. T. , Olson, M. R. , Okuda, T. , Walz, K. A. , and Schauer, J. J. , 2012, “ Sensitivity of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions to the Combustion of Blends of Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuel,” Atmos. Environ., 50(Suppl. C), pp. 307–313. [CrossRef]
Soloiu, V. , Harp, S. , Watson, C. , Muinos, M. , Davoud, S. , Molina, G. , Koehler, B. , Heimberger, J. , Jansons, M. , and Butts, C. , 2015, “ Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled With Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated From Cotton Seeds Oils,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 8(2), pp. 277–289. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Y. , Dubé, M. A. , McLean, D. D. , and Kates, M. , 2003, “ Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil—2: Economic Assessment and Sensitivity Analysis,” Bioresour. Technol., 90(3), pp. 229–240. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Banani, R. , Youssef, S. , Bezzarga, M. , and Abderrabba, M. , 2015, “ Waste Frying Oil With High Levels of Free Fatty Acids as One of the Prominent Sources of Biodiesel Production,” J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 6(4), pp. 1178–1185. http://www.jmaterenvironsci.com/Document/vol6/vol6_N4/138-JMES-1375-2015-Banani.pdf
Lam, M. K. , Lee, K. T. , and Mohamed, A. R. , 2010, “ Homogeneous, Heterogeneous and Enzymatic Catalysis for Transesterification of High Free Fatty Acid Oil (Waste Cooking Oil) to Biodiesel: A Review,” Biotechnol. Adv., 28(4), pp. 500–518. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
USDO, 2017, “ Oilseeds: World Market and Trade,” United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, Report. https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/oilseeds.pdf
Shankar, B. , Thaiprasert, N. , Gheewala, S. , and Smith, R. , 2017, “ Policies for Healthy and Sustainable Edible Oil Consumption: A Stakeholder Analysis for Thailand,” Public Health Nutr., 20(6), pp. 1126–1134. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zong, M.-H. , Duan, Z.-Q. , Lou, W.-Y. , Smith, T. J. , and Wu, H. , 2007, “ Preparation of a Sugar Catalyst and Its Use for Highly Efficient Production of Biodiesel,” Green Chem., 9(5), pp. 434–437. [CrossRef]
Parthiban, K. S. , and Perumalsamy, M. , 2015, “ Nano Sized Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst From Ceiba Pentandra Stalks for Production of Biodiesel Using Extracted Oil From Ceiba Pentandra Seeds,” RSC Adv., 5(15), pp. 11180–11187. [CrossRef]
Bajaj, A. , Lohan, P. , Jha, P. N. , and Mehrotra, R. , 2010, “ Biodiesel Production Through Lipase Catalyzed Transesterification: An Overview,” J. Mol. Catal. B, 62(1), pp. 9–14. [CrossRef]
Su, F. , and Guo, Y. , 2014, “ Advancements in Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production,” Green Chem., 16(6), pp. 2934–2957. [CrossRef]
Jain, S. , Sharma, M. P. , and Rajvanshi, S. , 2011, “ Acid Base Catalyzed Transesterification Kinetics of Waste Cooking Oil,” Fuel Process. Technol., 92(1), pp. 32–38. [CrossRef]
Dehkhoda, A. M. , 2010, “Developing Biochar-Based Catalyst for Biodiesel Production,” Master's thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.458.5011&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Nakajima, K. , Hara, M. , and Hayashi, S. , 2007, “ Environmentally Benign Production of Chemicals and Energy Using a Carbon‐Based Strong Solid Acid,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90(12), pp. 3725–3734.
Lou, W.-Y. , Zong, M.-H. , and Duan, Z.-Q. , 2008, “ Efficient Production of Biodiesel From High Free Fatty Acid-Containing Waste Oils Using Various Carbohydrate-Derived Solid Acid Catalysts,” Bioresour. Technol., 99(18), pp. 8752–8758. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Shu, Q. , Nawaz, Z. , Gao, J. , Liao, Y. , Zhang, Q. , Wang, D. , and Wang, J. , 2010, “ Synthesis of Biodiesel From a Model Waste Oil Feedstock Using a Carbon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst: Reaction and Separation,” Bioresour. Technol., 101(14), pp. 5374–5384. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Liu, T. , Li, Z. , Li, W. , Shi, C. , and Wang, Y. , 2013, “ Preparation and Characterization of Biomass Carbon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst for the Esterification of Oleic Acid With Methanol,” Bioresour. Technol., 133, pp. 618–621. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Fu, X. , Li, D. , Chen, J. , Zhang, Y. , Huang, W. , Zhu, Y. , Yang, J. , and Zhang, C. , 2013, “ A Microalgae Residue Based Carbon Solid Acid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production,” Bioresour. Technol., 146, pp. 767–770. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Liang, F. , Song, Y. , Huang, C. , Zhang, J. , and Chen, B. , 2013, “ Preparation and Performance Evaluation of a Lignin-Based Solid Acid From Acid Hydrolysis Lignin,” Catal. Commun., 40, pp. 93–97. [CrossRef]
Pua, F-L. , Fang, Z. , Zakaria, S. , Guo, F. , and Chia, C-H. , 2011, “ Direct Production of Biodiesel From High-Acid Value Jatropha oil With Solid Acid Catalyst Derived From Lignin,” Biotechnol. Biofuels, 4(1), p. 56. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Li, X.-F. , and Fu, Y. , 2012, “ Preparation of Solid Acid Catalyst From Industrial Waste Kraft Lignin for Methyl Oleate Production by Esterification,” J. Biobased Mater. Bioenergy, 6(2), pp. 178–184. [CrossRef]
Tran, T. T. V. , Kaiprommarat, S. , Kongparakul, S. , Reubroycharoen, P. , Guan, G. , Nguyen, M. H. , and Samart, C. , 2016, “ Green Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil Using an Environmentally Benign Acid Catalyst,” Waste Manage., 52, pp. 367–374. [CrossRef]
Devi, B. P. , Reddy, T. V. K. , Lakshmi, K. V. , and Prasad, R. , 2014, “ A Green Recyclable SO3H-Carbon Catalyst Derived From Glycerol for the Production of Biodiesel From FFA-Containing Karanja (Pongamia Glabra) Oil in a Single Step,” Bioresour. Technol., 153, pp. 370–373. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Savaliya, M. L. , and Dholakiya, B. Z. , 2015, “ A Simpler and Highly Efficient Protocol for the Preparation of Biodiesel From Soap Stock Oil Using a BBSA Catalyst,” RSC Adv., 5(91), pp. 74416–74424. [CrossRef]
Rahman, S. H. A. , Choudhury, J. P. , Ahmad, A. L. , and Kamaruddin, A. H. , 2007, “ Optimization Studies on Acid Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber for Production of Xylose,” Bioresour. Technol., 98(3), pp. 554–559. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huang, M. , Luo, J. , Fang, Z. , and Li, H. , 2016, “ Biodiesel Production Catalyzed by Highly Acidic Carbonaceous Catalysts Synthesized Via Carbonizing Lignin in Sub- and Super-Critical Ethanol,” Appl. Catal. B, 190, pp. 103–114. [CrossRef]
Thushari, P. G. I. , and Babel, S. , 2016, “ A Novel Environmental Benign Catalyst for Esterification of Palmitic Acid From Palm Empty Fruit Bunch,” Asia-Pacific Conference on Biotechnology for Waste Conversion (BioWC), Hong Kong, China, Dec. 6–8, pp. 214–215.
Brunauer, S. , Emmett, P. H. , and Teller, E. , 1938, “ Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60(2), pp. 309–319. [CrossRef]
Barrett, E. P. , Joyner, L. G. , and Halenda, P. P. , 1951, “ The Determination of Pore Volume and Area Distributions in Porous Substances—I: Computations From Nitrogen Isotherms,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 73(1), pp. 373–380. [CrossRef]
UNE-EN, 2003, “Fat and Oil Derivatives: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME)—Determination of Ester and Linolenic Acid Methyl Ester Contents,” Standards Policy and Strategy Committee, British Standards Institute, London, Standard No. CSN EN 14103. https://www.en-standard.eu/csn-en-14103-fat-and-oil-derivatives-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-fame-determination-of-ester-and-linolenic-acid-methyl-ester-contents/
Coates, J. , 2000, “ Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, A Practical Approach,” Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry, R. A. Meyers , ed., Wiley, Chichester, UK. [CrossRef]
Fu, Z. , Wan, H. , Hu, X. , Cui, Q. , and Guan, G. , 2012, “ Preparation and Catalytic Performance of a Carbon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst With High Specific Surface Area,” React. Kinet. Mech. Catal., 107(1), pp. 203–213. [CrossRef]
Russo, P. A. , Antunes, M. M. , Neves, P. , Wiper, P. V. , Fazio, E. , Neri, F. , Barreca, F. , Mafra, L. , Pillinger, M. , Pinna, N. , and Valente, A. A. , 2014, “ Solid Acids With SO3H Groups and Tunable Surface Properties: Versatile Catalysts for Biomass Conversion,” J. Mater. Chem. A., 2(30), pp. 11813–11824. [CrossRef]
Nakajima, K. , and Hara, M. , 2012, “ Amorphous Carbon With SO3H Groups as a Solid Brønsted Acid Catalyst,” ACS Catal., 2(7), pp. 1296–1304. [CrossRef]
Liu, W.-J. , Tian, K. , Jiang, H. , and Yu, H.-Q. , 2013, “ Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient and Recyclable Magnetic Solid Acid From Biomass Waste,” Sci. Rep., 3, p. 2419.
Melero, J. A. , Iglesias, J. , and Morales, G. , 2009, “ Heterogeneous Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production: Current Status and Future Challenges,” Green Chem., 11(9), pp. 1285–1308. [CrossRef]
Shu, Q. , Gao, J. , Nawaz, Z. , Liao, Y. , Wang, D. , and Wang, J. , 2010, “ Synthesis of Biodiesel From Waste Vegetable Oil With Large Amounts of Free Fatty Acids Using a Carbon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst,” Appl. Energy, 87(8), pp. 2589–2596. [CrossRef]
Zheng, S. , Kates, M. , Dubé, M. , and McLean, D. , 2006, “ Acid-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel From Waste Frying Oil,” Biomass Bioenergy, 30(3), pp. 267–272. [CrossRef]
Liu, R.-L. , Gao, X.-Y. , An, L. , Ma, J. , Zhang, J.-F. , and Zhang, Z.-Q. , 2015, “ Fabrication of Magnetic Carbonaceous Solid Acids From Banana Peel for the Esterification of Oleic Acid,” RSC Adv., 5(114), pp. 93858–93866. [CrossRef]
Saravanan, K. , Tyagi, B. , Shukla, R. S. , and Bajaj, H. C. , 2016, “ Solvent Free Synthesis of Methyl Palmitate Over Sulfated Zirconia Solid Acid Catalyst,” Fuel., 165, pp. 298–305. [CrossRef]
ASTM, 2002, “ Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B100) Blend Stock for Distillate Fuels,” American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. D-6751-02. https://www.astm.org/DATABASE.CART/HISTORICAL/D6751-02.htm
JUS, 2004, “ Automotive Fuels—Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) for Diesel Engines-Requirements and Test Methods,” Standardization Institute, Belgrade, Serbia, Standard No. 14214.
Babaki, M. , Yousefi, M. , Habibi, Z. , Brask, J. , and Mohammadi, M. , 2015, “ Preparation of Highly Reusable Biocatalysts by Immobilization of Lipases on Epoxy-Functionalized Silica for Production of Biodiesel From Canola Oil,” Biochem. Eng. J., 101, pp. 23–31. [CrossRef]
Barabás, I. , and Todoruţ, I.-A. , 2011, “ Biodiesel Quality, Standards and Properties,” Biodiesel-Quality, Emissions and By-Products, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 3–28. [CrossRef]
Ali, O. M. , Mamat, R. , Najafi, G. , Yusaf, T. , and Safieddin Ardebili, S. M. , 2015, “ Optimization of Biodiesel-Diesel Blended Fuel Properties and Engine Performance With Ether Additive Using Statistical Analysis and Response Surface Methods,” Energies, 8(12), pp. 14136–14150. [CrossRef]
Ghazali, W. N. M. W. , Mamat, R. , Masjuki, H. , and Najafi, G. , 2015, “ Effects of Biodiesel From Different Feedstocks on Engine Performance and Emissions: A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 51, pp. 585–602. [CrossRef]
Fu, J. , Hue, B. T. B. , and Turn, S. Q. , 2017, “ Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Derived From Waste Catfish Oil,” Fuel, 202, pp. 455–463. [CrossRef]
Patil, P. D. , Gude, V. G. , and Deng, S. , 2009, “ Biodiesel Production From Jatropha Curcas, Waste Cooking, and Camelina Sativa Oils,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 48(24), pp. 10850–10856. [CrossRef]
Christensen, E. , and McCormick, R. L. , 2014, “ Long-Term Storage Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends,” Fuel Process. Technol., 128(Suppl. C), pp. 339–348. [CrossRef]
Chokri, B. , Ridha, E. , Rachid, S. , and Jamel, B. , 2012, “ Experimental Study of a Diesel Engine Performance Running on Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Blend,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(3), p. 032202. [CrossRef]
Singh, B. , Kaur, J. , and Singh, K. , 2010, “ Production of Biodiesel From Used Mustard Oil and Its Performance Analysis in Internal Combustion Engine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 132(3), p. 031001. [CrossRef]
Mistri, G. K. , Aggarwal, S. K. , Longman, D. , and Agarwal, A. K. , 2015, “ Performance and Emission Investigations of Jatropha and Karanja Biodiesels in a Single-Cylinder Compression-Ignition Engine Using Endoscopic Imaging,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 138(1), p. 011202. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

EDS of PEFB-DS-SO3H catalyst

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Proposed schematic layout of catalyst preparation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Adsorption–desorption isotherm and (b) pore size distribution of PEFB-DS-SO3H catalyst

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscopy of PEFB-DS-SO3H catalyst

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fourier transform infrared spectrum of (a) raw PEFB, (b) PEFB-DS-SO3H catalyst, (c) used catalyst after first cycle, and (d) used catalyst after second cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) XPS spectra of raw PEFB, PEFB-DS-SO3H, and used PEFB-DS-SO3H, (b1)–(b3) S2p spectrum, C1 s spectrum, and O1 s spectrum of PEFB-DS-SO3H, and (c) S2p spectra of PEFB-DS-SO3H, and used PEFB-DS-SO3H

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Proposed mechanisms for carbon-based solid acid catalyzed (a) trans-esterification reaction and (b) esterification reaction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of catalyst loading on FAME yield (%): 14:1 methanol:oil (molar ratio) at 65–70 °C, 10 h

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of methanol:oil (molar ratio) on FAME yield (%): 5 wt % catalyst, at 65–70 °C, 10 h

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of reaction time on FAME yield (%): 5 wt % catalyst, 14:1 methanol:oil (molar ratio), at 65–70 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of reaction temperature on FAME yield: 5 wt % catalyst, 6:1 methanol:oil (molar ratio), at 3 h, in an autoclave system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Catalyst reusability: 5 wt % catalyst, 14:1 methanol:oil (molar ratio), at 65–70 °C, 14 h

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In