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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Effects of Asymmetric Radial Clearance on Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Cheng Xu

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way,
Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: xuc2@asme.org

Ryoichi S. Amano

Life Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
115 E. Reindl Way,
Glendale, WI 53212
e-mail: amano@uwm.edu

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 22, 2017; final manuscript received October 18, 2017; published online December 22, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(5), 052003 (Dec 22, 2017) (16 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1456; doi: 10.1115/1.4038387 History: Received August 22, 2017; Revised October 18, 2017

The centrifugal compressors are widely used in industrial applications. The design, manufacturing, and installation are all critical for the compressor performance. Many studies have been carried out in the past to optimize the compressor performance during compressor design. The manufacturing tolerances and installation errors can cause the performance drop. There are many compressor performance distortions that are not fully understood due to manufacturing and facilities. In this paper, an asymmetrical radial clearance of the impeller due to manufacturing and installation is studied in detail for the performance impacts. The numerical studies and experiments indicated that the asymmetric radial clearance impacts the compressor flow field structure and performance. Experimental results suggested that the manufacturing and installation cause asymmetric radial clearance which decreased the compressor performance in whole operating range. The numerical analysis demonstrated that the impeller asymmetric clearance impacts performance near the design pressure ratio more than other pressure ratios. The numerical studies showed that the maximum clearance location of asymmetric clearance might impact the compressor performance. The proper asymmetricity of diffuser verse the volute may benefit the compressor performance. The excellent compressor performances for centrifugal compressors especially for small centrifugal compressors not only need to have a good aerodynamic design but also need to control manufacturing and installation carefully.

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References

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Xu, C. , and Amano, R. S. , 2012, “ Empirical Design Considerations for Industrial Centrifugal Compressors,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 2012, p. 184061.
Xu, C. , and Amano, R. S. , 2009, “ Development of a Low Flow Coefficient Single Stage Centrifugal Compressor,” Int. J. Comput. Methods Eng. Sci. Mech., 10(4), pp. 282–289. [CrossRef]
Brasz, J. J. , 1988, “Investigating Into the Effect of Tip Clearance on Centrifugal Compressor Performance,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-190.
Engeda, A. , and Rautenberg, M. , 1987, “ Comparisons of the Relative Effect of Tip Clearance on Centrifugal Impellers,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(4), pp. 545–549. [CrossRef]
Graf, M. B. , Wong, T. S. , Greitzer, E. M. , and Wisler, D. C. , 1998, “ Effects of Nonaxiuniform Tip Clearance on Axial Compressor Performance and Stability,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(4), pp. 648–661.
Xu, C. , and Amano, R. S. , 2009, “ On the Development of Turbomachine Blade Aerodynamic Design System,” Int. J. Comput. Methods Eng. Sci. Mech., 10(3), pp. 186–196. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Compressor design process

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Fig. 2

Uniform and asymmetric eye clearances

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Fig. 3

Computational mesh

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Fig. 5

Head coefficient versus flow

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Fig. 6

Efficiency versus flow

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Fig. 7

Static pressure distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 8

Total pressure distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 9

Entropy distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 10

Total pressure distribution perpendicular to the flow direction at the plane near hub leading edge

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Fig. 11

Total pressure distribution perpendicular to the flow direction at midplane of the impeller length

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Fig. 12

Total pressure distribution perpendicular to the flow direction near the diffuser shroud

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Fig. 13

Velocity curl distribution perpendicular to the flow direction at the plane near hub leading edge

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Fig. 14

Velocity curl distribution perpendicular to the flow direction at midplane of the impeller length

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Fig. 15

Velocity curl distribution perpendicular to the flow direction near the plane of diffuser shroud

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Fig. 16

Velocity curl, total pressure, and pressure distributions 99.5% RH outside of tip at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 17

Static pressure distributions between blades at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 18

Total pressure distributions between blades at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 19

Turbulence kinetic energy distributions between blades at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 20

Velocity vector at the meridional plane at pressure ratio = 1.97 (circular area average)

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Fig. 21

Static pressure distributions at the meridional plane at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 22

Total pressure distributions at the meridional plane at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 23

Volute inlet average static pressure at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 24

Volute inlet average total pressure at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 25

Static pressure distributions at plane of mid-span of the volute inlet at pressure ratio = 1.97

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Fig. 26

Static pressure distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 1.75

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Fig. 27

Total pressure distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 1.75

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Fig. 28

Entropy distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 1.75

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Fig. 29

Velocity curl, total pressure, and pressure distributions 99.5% RH outside of tip at pressure ratio = 1.75

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Fig. 30

Static pressure distributions between blades at pressure ratio = 1.75

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Fig. 31

Total pressure distributions between blades at pressure ratio = 1.75

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Fig. 32

Velocity vectors at the meridional plane at pressure ratio = 1.75

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Fig. 33

Static pressure distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 2.07

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Fig. 34

Total pressure distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 2.07

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Fig. 35

Entropy distributions on the compressor wall at pressure ratio = 2.07

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Fig. 36

Velocity curl, total pressure, and pressure distributions 99.5% RH outside of tip at pressure ratio = 2.07

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Fig. 37

Static pressure distributions between blades at pressure ratio = 2.07

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Fig. 38

Total pressure distributions between blades at pressure ratio = 2.07

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Fig. 39

Velocity vectors at the meridional plane at pressure ratio = 2.07

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