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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Adaptability Research of Thermal–Chemical Assisted Steam Injection in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

[+] Author and Article Information
Wu Zhengbin, Liu Huiqing, Wang Xue

State Key Laboratory of Petroleum
Resources and Prospecting,
University of Petroleum,
Beijing 102249, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 23, 2016; final manuscript received October 23, 2017; published online November 28, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(5), 052901 (Nov 28, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-16-1185; doi: 10.1115/1.4038405 History: Received April 23, 2016; Revised October 23, 2017

Thermal–chemical flooding (TCF) is an effective alternative to enhance heavy oil recovery after steam injection. In this paper, single and parallel sand-pack flooding experiments were carried out to investigate the oil displacement ability of thermal–chemical composed of steam, nitrogen (N2), and viscosity breaker (VB), considering multiple factors such as residual oil saturation (Sorw) postwater flood, scheme switch time, and permeability contrast. The results of single sand-pack experiments indicated that compared with steam flooding (SF), steam-nitrogen flooding, and steam-VB flooding, TCF had the best displacement efficiency, which was 11.7% higher than that of pure SF. The more serious of water-flooded degree, the poorer of TCF effect. The improvement effect of TCF almost lost as water saturation reached 80%. Moreover, the earlier TCF was transferred from steam injection, the higher oil recovery was obtained. The parallel sand-pack experiments suggested that TCF had good adaptability to reservoir heterogeneity. Emulsions generated after thermal–chemical injection diverted the following compound fluid turning to the low-permeable tube (LPT) due to its capturing and blocking ability. The expansion of N2 and the disturbance of VB promoted oil recovery in both tubes. As reservoir heterogeneity became more serious, namely, permeability contrast was more than 6 in this study, the improvement effect became weaker due to earlier steam channeling in the high-permeable tube (HPT).

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Viscosity–temperature relationship curve of crude oil

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the single sand-pack flooding experiments

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Fig. 3

Oil recovery versus injected PV

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Fig. 4

Dynamic variation of oil recovery percentage: (a) steam, (b) steam + VB, (c) steam + VB + N2, and (d) comparison of oil recovery of the three displacement fluids under different water saturations

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Fig. 5

Oil recovery percentage versus injected PV

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Fig. 6

Comparison of ultimate recovery

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Fig. 7

Dynamic characteristic of PC = 2: (a)–(c) dynamic variation of experiment ①–③, respectively, and (d) the comparison of oil recovery percentage

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Fig. 8

Dynamic characteristic of PC = 4: (a)–(c) dynamic variation of experiment ①–③, respectively, and (d) the comparison of oil recovery percentage

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Fig. 9

Dynamic characteristic of PC = 6: (a)–(c) dynamic variation of experiment ①–③, respectively, (d) the comparison of oil recovery percentage

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