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Research Papers: Energy Systems Analysis

Exergy Analysis-Potential of Salinity Gradient Energy Source

[+] Author and Article Information
Arash Emdadi

Energy Center,
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
(EPFL),
Lausanne, 1015, Switzerland
e-mail: arash.emdadi@fujifilm.com

Mansour Zenouzi

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering &
Technology,
Wentworth Institute of Technology,
Boston, MA 02115
e-mail: zenouzim@wit.edu

Amir Lak

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Gazi University,
Anakra 06560, Turkey
e-mail: amirlakeng@gmail.com

Behzad Panahirad

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Eastern Mediterranean University,
Famagusta 10, Northern Cyprus, Cyprus
e-mail: panahiradbehzad@yahoo.com

Yunus Emami

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Urmia University of Technology,
Urmia 57166-17165, West Azerbaijan, Iran
e-mail: emamiyunus@gmail.com

Farshad Lak

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Urmia University of Technology,
Urmia 57166-17165, West Azerbaijan, Iran
e-mail: lak.farshad@yahoo.com

Gregory J. Kowalski

Fellow ASME
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Department,
Northeastern University,
Boston, MA 02115
e-mail: gkowal@coe.neu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 2, 2017; final manuscript received December 22, 2017; published online February 15, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072001 (Feb 15, 2018) (6 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1524; doi: 10.1115/1.4038964 History: Received October 02, 2017; Revised December 22, 2017

Mixing of fresh (river) water and salty water (seawater or saline brine) in a controlled environment produces an electrical energy known as salinity gradient energy (SGE). Two main conversion technologies of SGE are membrane-based processes: pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED). Exergy calculations for a representative river-lake system are investigated using available data in the literature between 2000 and 2008 as a case study. An exergy analysis of an SGE system of sea-river is applied to calculate the maximum potential power for electricity generation. Seawater is taken as reference environment (global dead state) for calculating the exergy of fresh water since the sea is the final reservoir. Aqueous sodium chloride solution model is used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. This model does not consider seawater as an ideal solution and provides accurate thermodynamics properties of sodium chloride solution. The chemical exergy analysis considers sodium chloride (NaCl) as main salt in the water of this highly saline Lake with concentration of more than 200 g/L. The potential power of this system is between 150 and 329 MW depending on discharge of river and salinity gradient between the Lake and the River based on the exergy results. This result indicates a high potential for constructing power plant for SGE conversion. Semipermeable membranes with lifetime greater than 10 years and power density higher than 5 W/m2 would lead to faster development of this conversion technology.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of a pressure-retarded osmosis power plant [19]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Simplified schematic view of an RED stack representing the fluid transport through the ion-exchange membranes [20]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Revenue of membranes with different life times per surface area versus sale price of electricity. Shadowed section indicates the range in which project is feasible [24]. Different power density and lifetime of membranes are considered including 2.5 W/m2 and 5 years (a), 2.5 W/m2 and 10 years or 5 W/m2 and 5 years (b), 5 W/m2 and 10 years or 10 W/m2 and 5 years (c), and finally, 10 W/m2 and 10 years (d).

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