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research-article

EXERGY ANALYSIS- POTENTIAL of SALINITY GRADIENT ENERGY SOURCE

[+] Author and Article Information
Arash Emdadi

Energy Center, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, 1015, Switzerland
arash.emdadi@fujifilm.com

Mansour Zenouzi

ASME Fellow, Department of Mechanical Engineering & Technology, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA 02115
zenouzim@wit.edu

Amir Lak

Mechanical Engineering Department, Gazi University, Anakra, Turkey
amirlakeng@gmail.com

Behzad Panahirad

Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus, Cyprus
panahiradbehzad@yahoo.com

Yunus Emami

Mechanical Engineering Department, Urmia, University of Technology, Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran
emamiyunus@gmail.com

Frashad Lak

Mechanical Engineering Department, Urmia, University of Technology, Urmia, West Azerbaijan, Iran
lak.farshad@yahoo.com

Greg Kowalski

ASME Fellow, Mechanical and Industrial, Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA
gkowal@coe.neu.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4038964 History: Received October 02, 2017; Revised December 22, 2017

Abstract

Mixing of fresh (river) water and salty water (seawater or saline brine) in a controlled environment produces an electrical energy known as salinity gradient energy (SGE). Two main conversion technologies of SGE are membrane-based processes; pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED). Exergy calculation of Iran's Urmia Lake- GadarChay River system is investigated using available data between 2000 and 2008 as a case study. An exergy analysis of a SGE system of sea-river is applied to calculate the maximum potential power for electricity generation. Seawater is taken as reference environment (global dead state) for calculating the exergy of fresh water since the sea is the final reservoir. Aqueous sodium chloride solution model is used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. This model does not consider seawater as an ideal solution and provides accurate thermodynamics properties of sodium chloride solution. The chemical exergy analysis considers sodium chloride (NaCl) as main salt in the water of Lake Urmia and its concentration is more than 200 g/L in this time period. The potential power of this system is between 150 and 329 MW depending on discharge of river and salinity gradient between the Urmia Lake and GadarChay River based on the exergy results. This result indicates a high potential for constructing power plant for salinity gradient energy conversion. Semipermeable membranes with lifetime greater than 10 years and power density higher than 5 W/m2 would lead to faster development of this conversion technology.

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