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Research Papers: Petroleum Engineering

Sand Transport in Slightly Upward Inclined Multiphase Flow

[+] Author and Article Information
Ramin Dabirian

Petroleum Engineering,
The University of Tulsa,
800 South Tucker Drive,
Tulsa, OK 74104-3189
e-mail: ramin-dabirian@utulsa.edu

Ram Mohan

Professor
Fellow ASME
Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Tulsa,
800 South Tucker Drive,
Tulsa, OK 74104-3189
e-mail: ram-mohan@utulsa.edu

Ovadia Shoham

Professor
Petroleum Engineering,
The University of Tulsa,
800 South Tucker Drive,
Tulsa, OK 74104-3189
e-mail: ovadia-shoham@utulsa.edu

Gene Kouba

Senior Research Consultant (Retired),
e-mail: genekouba1@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 24, 2017; final manuscript received January 9, 2018; published online February 27, 2018. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072901 (Feb 27, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1243; doi: 10.1115/1.4039269 History: Received May 24, 2017; Revised January 09, 2018

In order to assess the critical sand deposition condition, a unique 4-in ID test facility was designed and constructed, which enables the pipe to be inclined 1.5 deg upward. Experiments were conducted with air–water-glass beads at low sand concentrations (< 10,000 ppm), and the air and water flow rates were selected to ensure stratified flow regime along the pipe. At constant superficial liquid velocity, the gas velocity was reduced to find the critical sand deposition velocity. Six sand flow regimes are identified, namely, fully dispersed solid flow, dilute solids at the wall, concentrated solids at the wall, moving dunes, stationary dunes, and stationary bed. The experimental results reveal that sand flow regimes under air–water stratified flow are strong functions of phase velocities, particle size, and particle concentration. Also, the results show that air–water flow regime plays an important role in particle transport; slug flow has high capability to transport particles at the pipe bottom, while the stratified flow has high risk of sand deposition. As long as the sand dunes are observed at the pipe bottom, the critical sand deposition velocities slightly increase with concentrations, while for stationary bed, the critical velocity increases exponentially with concentration.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

View of sand flow regime in stratified flow

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Fig. 2

Schematic of moving bed/moving dunes transition: (a) concentrated solids at the wall (moving bed), (b) concentrated solids at the wall, and (c) moving dunes

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Fig. 3

Schematic of moving dunes/stationary dune transition

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Fig. 4

Schematic of test section

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Fig. 5

Taitel and Dukler [14] flow pattern map for air–water system and 1.5 deg inclination angle

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Fig. 6

Liquid holdup at VSL=0.05 and 0.1 m/s

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Fig. 7

Sand flow regimes for 45–90 μm at VSL=0.05 m/s

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Fig. 8

Sand flow regimes for 45–90 μm at VSL=0.1 m/s

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Fig. 9

Sand flow regimes for 125–250 μm at VSL=0.05 m/s

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Fig. 10

Sand flow regimes for 125–250 μm at VSL=0.1 m/s

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Fig. 11

Sand flow regimes for 425–600 μm at VSL=0.05 m/s

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Fig. 12

Sand flow regimes for 425–600 μm at VSL=0.1 m/s

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Fig. 13

Critical velocity comparison for particle sizes of 45–90, 125–250, and 425–600 μm at VSL=0.05 m/s

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Fig. 14

Critical velocity comparison for particle sizes of 45–90, 125–250, and 425–600 μm at VSL=0.1 m/s

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Fig. 15

Stokes number versus sand concentration

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