0
Research Papers: Fuel Combustion

Effect of Retarded Injection Timing on Knock Resistance and Cycle to Cycle Variation in Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Lei Zhou, Aifang Shao, Jianxiong Hua, Dengquan Feng

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China

Haiqiao Wei

State Key Laboratory of Engines,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: whq@tju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 6, 2017; final manuscript received January 26, 2018; published online February 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Avinash Kumar Agarwal.

J. Energy Resour. Technol 140(7), 072202 (Feb 27, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: JERT-17-1412; doi: 10.1115/1.4039322 History: Received August 06, 2017; Revised January 26, 2018

In spark ignition engines, gasoline direct injection (GDI) is surely the most attractive technology to achieve the demand of high energy efficiency by directly injecting fuel into combustion chamber. This work, as a preliminary study, investigates the effect of retarded injection timing on knock resistance and cycle-to-cycle variation in gasoline engine by experimental method. The retarded injection timing during compression stroke coupled with increased intake air temperature was employed to concentrate on suppressing knock occurrence with stable combustion. Based on the great advantage of injection timing retard on knock suppression, intake temperature was used in this work to reduce cycle-to-cycle variation. In addition, piezo-electrically actuated injector was employed. The results show that injection timing retard during compression stroke can significantly suppress the knock tendency, but combustion becomes unstable and cycle-to-cycle variation is larger than 10%. Thus, increasing intake temperature decreased the cycle-to-cycle variation but increased significantly the knock tendency, as expect. Meanwhile, rich fuel–air mixture in this work also had the same effect as intake temperature did. It can be concluded that retarded injection timing is of significant potential to suppress the knock in GDI engine, although the high intake temperature causes high probability of large knock occurrence. The percentages of knock at the spark timings of 24 °CA before top dead center (BTDC) and 26 °CA BTDC were significantly reduced from approximately 40% to 7% and from approximately 60% to 10%, respectively. Furthermore, the retarded injection timing not only reduced the probability of knock occurrence, but also decreased the knock intensity obviously.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Potteau, S. , Lutz, P. , Leroux, S. , Moroz, S. , and Tomas, E. , 2007, “ Cooled EGR for a Turbo SI Engine to Reduce Knocking and Fuel Consumption,” SAE Paper No. 2007-01-3978.
Wei, H. , Zhu, T. , Shu, G. , Tan, L. , and Wang, Y. , 2012, “ Gasoline Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation–A Review,” Appl. Energy, 99, pp. 534–544. [CrossRef]
Van Blarigan, A. , Kozarac, D. , Seiser, R. , Cattolica, R. , Chen, J.-Y. , and Dibble, R. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Methane Fuel Oxycombustion in a Spark-Ignited Engine,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 136(1), p. 012203. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y. , Zu, B. , Xu, Y. , Wang, Z. , and Liu, J. , 2016, “ Performance Analysis of a Miller Cycle Engine by an Indirect Analysis Method With Sparking and Knock in Consideration,” Energy Convers. Manage., 119, pp. 316–326. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J. , 2017, “ Research and Application of Over-Expansion Cycle (Atkinson and Miller) Engines–A Review,” Appl. Energy, 185(Pt. 1), pp. 300–319. [CrossRef]
Duarte, J. , Garcia, J. , Jiménez, J. , Sanjuan, M. E. , Bula, A. , and González, J. , 2016, “ Auto-Ignition Control in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Internal Model Control Structure,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(2), p. 022201. [CrossRef]
Rahmouni, C. , Brecq, G. , Tazerout, M. , and Le Corre, O. , 2004, “ Knock Rating of Gaseous Fuels in a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine,” Fuel, 83(3), pp. 327–336. [CrossRef]
Saikaly, K. , Le Corre, O. , Rahmouni, C. , and Truffet, L. , 2010, “ Preventive Knock Protection Technique for Stationary SI Engines Fuelled by Natural Gas,” Fuel Process. Technol., 91(6), pp. 641–652. [CrossRef]
Selim, M. Y. , 2004, “ Sensitivity of Dual Fuel Engine Combustion and Knocking Limits to Gaseous Fuel Composition,” Energy Convers. Manage., 45(3), pp. 411–425. [CrossRef]
Li, T. , Nishida, K. , Zhang, Y. , and Hiroyasu, H. , 2007, “ Effect of Split Injection on Stratified Charge Formation of Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines,” Int. J. Engine Res., 8(2), pp. 205–219. [CrossRef]
Costa, M. , Sorge, U. , Merola, S. , Irimescu, A. , Villetta, M. L. , and Rocco, V. , 2016, “ Split Injection in a Homogeneous Stratified Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for High Combustion Efficiency and Low Pollutants Emission,” Energy, 117(Pt. 2), pp. 405–415. [CrossRef]
Kuwahara, K. , Ueda, K. , and Ando, H. , 1998, “Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” SAE Paper No. 980158.
Liu, H. , Wang, Z. , and Wang, J. , 2014, “ Methanol-Gasoline DFSI (Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition) Combustion With Dual-Injection for Engine Knock Suppression,” Energy, 73(3), pp. 686–693. [CrossRef]
Marseglia, G. , Costa, M. , Catapano, F. , Sementa, P. , and Vaglieco, B. M. , 2017, “ Study About the Link Between Injection Strategy and Knock Onset in an Optically Accessible Multi-Cylinder GDI Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 134, pp. 1–19. [CrossRef]
Zhao, H. , 2009, Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development: Diesel Engines, Vol. 2, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Sayin, C. , and Canakci, M. , 2009, “ Effects of Injection Timing on the Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine,” Energy Convers. Manage., 50(1), pp. 203–213. [CrossRef]
Yousefi, A. , and Birouk, M. , 2016, “ An Investigation of Multi-Injection Strategies for a Dual-Fuel Pilot Diesel Ignition Engine at Low Load,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 139(1), p. 012201. [CrossRef]
Roy, M. M. , 2009, “ Effect of Fuel Injection Timing and Injection Pressure on Combustion and Odorous Emissions in DI Diesel Engines,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 131(3), p. 032201. [CrossRef]
Song, J. , Kim, T. , Jang, J. , and Park, S. , 2015, “ Effects of the Injection Strategy on the Mixture Formation and Combustion Characteristics in a DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) Optical Engine,” Energy, 93(Pt. 2), pp. 1758–1768. [CrossRef]
Sjöberg, M. , and Reuss, D. , 2012, “ NOx-Reduction by Injection-Timing Retard in a Stratified-Charge DISI Engine Using Gasoline and E85,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr., 5(3), pp. 1096–1113. [CrossRef]
Oh, H. , and Bae, C. , 2013, “ Effects of the Injection Timing on Spray and Combustion Characteristics in a Spray-Guided DISI Engine Under Lean-Stratified Operation,” Fuel, 107, pp. 225–235. [CrossRef]
Sjöberg, M. , and Reuss, D. L. , 2013, “ High-Speed Imaging of Spray-Guided DISI Engine Combustion With Near-TDC Injection of E85 for Ultra-Low NO and Soot,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 34(2), pp. 2933–2940. [CrossRef]
Sheppard, C. G. W. , Tolegano, S. , and Woolley, R. , 2002, “On the Nature of Autoignition Leading to Knock in HCCI Engines,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-2831.
Liu, Y. , Shi, X. , Deng, J. , Chen, Y. , Hu, M. , and Li, L. , 2013, “Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Knock Under DI-HCCI Combustion Mode With Ethanol/Gasoline Mixed Fuel,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-0544.
Amann, M. , Alger, T. , and Mehta, D. , 2011, “ The Effect of EGR on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines, 4(1), pp. 235–245. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Percentages of knock (a) and cycle-to-cycle variation (b) versus spark timing for three intake temperatures and different injection timings with the same injected fuel mass at three intake temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Knock tendency and cycle-to-cycle variation versus spark timing for three intake temperatures at ϕ=1.0 and injection timing of 120 °CA BTDC with injected fuel mass as same as the condition of intake temperature of 30 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Torque and cycle-to-cycle variation versus spark timing for different injection timings at ϕ=1.0 and intake temperature of 30 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Knock tendency versus spark timing and mass fraction burned of 20 °CA BTDC for various SOI timings at equivalence ratio of 1.0 (ϕ=1.0) and intake temperature of 30 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of single-cylinder gasoline engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Torque and cycle-to-cycle variation for different retarded injection timings at different intake temperatures and spark timing of 24 °CA BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Average temperatures versus crank angle, and CA10/CA50 for different injection timings and intake temperatures at spark timing of 24 °CA BTDC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Maximum amplitude of filtered pressure oscillations distribution for different injection timings and intake temperatures at the spark timings of 24 °CA BTDC and 26 °CA BTDC

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In